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文/第一白银网 来源:第一白银网 2021年12月19日 02:44:28
摘要 准则,将系统运行状态分为健康、临界和风险 状态。健康状态是指系统能够正常供电(无元件过负荷,电压和频率均在允许范围内),且满 足N_1准则;临界状态是指系统能够正常供电,但不满足N—1准则;风险状态是指系统 无法正常供电,可能需要削减负荷。基于该状态划分,定义3个状态指标:健康状态概率、 临界状态概率和风险状态概率。 需要说明的是,状态类指标可以根据不同的需求,采用不同状态划分方法,例如包括正 常、警戒、紧急、极端紧急、恢复状态的5状态划分等。本书采用的3状态划分的优点是,它 与经典的5状态划分一样,考虑了确定性的N-1准则,有利于被调度部门和工程界所接 受,同时比5状态划分更简洁清晰。 (2) 程度类指标 为了量化系统可靠性,具体描述线路潮流、母线电压等运行安全约束的满足情况及可能 导致的切负荷后果,定义3个程度指标:裕度指标、越限指标和切负荷指标。如果系统处于 健康状态或临界状态,则进一步通过裕度指标反映系统和元件安全运行的概率和裕度。如 果系统处于风险状态,则进一步通过越限指标反映线路潮流和母线电压越限的可能性和程 度;并通过切负荷指标反映负荷损失的可能性和期望值。 (3) 层次类指标 根据所关心的区域和目标不同,定义4个层次指标:系统指标、区域指标、负荷点指标 和元件指标。 13.3电力系统运行可靠性指标体系 411 (4)时限类指标 根据所关注的时间框架不同,定义短期指标与长期指标。短期指标的时间框架一般为 分钟或小时级;长期指标包括日指标、月指标、年指标等。 具体指标如表13.3.2所示,指标的计算公式如下。 表13.3.2运行可靠性指标体系 指 标 系统层 区域层 负荷点 元件层 状态类指标 健康状态概率 V V 临界状态概率 V V 风险状态概率 V V 程度类 指标 裕度 指标 潮流安全概率 V V V 潮流安全裕度 V V V 电压安全概率 V V V 电压上限安全裕度 V V V 电压下限安全裕度 V V V 潮流和电压安全概率 V V 越限 指标 潮流过载概率 V V V 潮流过载期望值 V V V 电压越限概率 V V V 电压越上限期望值 V 7 V 电压越下限期望值 V 7 V 潮流或电压越限概率 V V 切负荷 指标 潮流过载导致切负荷的概率 V V V V 潮流过载导致切负荷的期望值 V V V V 电压越限导致切负荷的概率 V V V 电压越限导致切负荷的期望值 V V V 切负荷概率 V 7 V 电力不足期望值 V V 电量不足期望值 V V V 严重程度指标 V V V 供电可用率 V V V 注:基于不同的预测时间z进行指标计算.即可得到相应的时限类指标(短期指标与长期指标)。 13.3.1运行可靠性状态类指标 (1) 健康状态概率 PHS(probability of healthy state): PHS= Sh ⑴ (13-1) Sk^DH 其中为系统状态s,在z时刻的概率;为处于健康状态的系统状态集合。 (2) 临界状态概率 PMS(probability of marginal state): PMS= 2 pst 为系统(区域、负荷点)在系统状态下的切负荷量,MW。 (36)系统(区域、负荷点)电量不足期望值 EENS(expected energy not supplied) (MW ? h): (13-35) Psk (r) X CSk (r)dr (37) 系统(区域、负荷点)严重程度指标SKseverity index)(系统分): SI = X 60 total 其中,L,<>ul为系统(区域、负荷点)的总负荷,MW。 (38) 系统(区域、负荷点)供电可用率SACservice availability): SA=1-^NS 需要说明的是,基于不同的预测时间步长《进行指标计算,即可得到相应的时限类指标 (短期指标与长期指标)。 EENS = (13-36) (13-37) (13-38) total 13.4电力系统元件的运行可靠性模型 电力系统运行中,重要发电机的停运会导致系统频率严重下降以及其他发电机组的跳 闸,频率严重失控时甚至导致系统频率崩溃;重要输变电设备的停运会引起系统潮流转移, 416 第13章电力系统运行可靠性 从而诱发大面积停电事故。因此,基于设备历史运行情况及其在未来短时间内的运行条件, 预测设备及电网的短期可靠性水平,对于指导调度员做出正确的控制决策从而降低大停电 风险、提高电力系统的运行可靠性具有重要作用。 在电力系统规划中,常采用恒定的设备故障率来计算系统中长期的可靠性水平,因为这 个长期统计平均值是设备长期运行情况的反映,如 图13.4.1虚线所示。然而恒定的平均故障率无法 描述历史运行条件和未来运行条件对设备停运风 险和系统运行可靠性的影响。例如连锁故障,按照 常规的元件可靠性模型,连锁故障的发生概率是基 于统计平均值的单重故障概率的乘积,数值非常 小,应该是百年不遇的事故。然而近年来这类故障 时常发生,造成理论与实际的严重脱离。原因在于 元件的可靠性建模出了问题,元件的停运概率应该 随着系统运行条件的变化而改变,如图13. 4. 1实线 所示。 图13.4.1可靠性模型参数(虚线是 平均值) 元件的运行可靠性模型综合考虑了运行条件和研究的时间尺度对元件停运概率的影 响。根据元件不同停运模式的机理,可建立相应的停运模型,如保护动作致停运模型、偶然 失效模型和老化失效模型等。应根据运行可靠性评估的应用场景选用合适的模型。若各停 运模型反映的停运事件相互独立,那么可以根据式(13-39)所示的可靠性逻辑串联关系对 它们进行组合使用: Ptoui = 1 - II(1 - P>> (13-39) 其中,为元件总的停运概率;P,为第i种停运模式下元件的停运概率,例如保护动作致 停运概率、偶然失效概率、老化失效概率等;《为考虑的停运模式的个数。本节主要介绍元 件的保护动作致停运模型和偶然失效模型,老化失效模型可参阅文献[7]。 13. 4.1保护动作致停运模型 1.线路过负荷保护动作模型 过负荷跳闸所引起的元件相继断开是一类可造成大面积停电的连锁故障。输电线路、 变压器等电力设备都装设有过负荷保护装置,然而保护装置的触发值的误差使得保护动作 切除设备存在不确定性。 过负荷继电保护系统主要由保护电流互感器和继电保护装置构成。一方面,保护电流 互感器的电流测量值存在误差,误差范围由该电流互感器的准确级决定;另一方面,继电保 护装置的触发值也存在误差,国标《继电器及装置基本试验方法(GB/T 7261—2000)》给出 了继电器装置极限误差的试验方法,实际产品的极限误差在±6%左右。设整个保护系统存 在的触发电流值L误差为±ei,并服从均值为'_,标准差为a,,范围为[Zse.od-e,), Ul+e,)]的截尾正态分布,其密度函数为 Jset 茫[LetO(l —Si),Jsetod +£l)] Iset) * 1 「 ( ^set IsetO )~] t r T z -l \ t z i | ---- exp------- I, e L-lSetO(l — ei),I?eto(l+ei)」 I Off! 72^ L 2ffI 」 (13-40) 13.4电力系统元件的运行可靠性模型 417 a =(I)

用英语说那是什么怎么翻译运营商的客户

eauty! I should scarcely have known you: you look like a lady now Isabella Linton is not to be compared with her, is she, Frances?” “Isabella has not her natural advantages,w replied his wife, “but she must mind and not grow wild again here. Ellen, help Miss Catherine off with her things—Stay dear, you will disarrange your curls—let me untie your hat.” I removed the habit, and there shone forth beneath a grand plaid silk frock, white trousers, and burnished shoes; and, while her eyes sparkled joyfully when the dogs came bounding up to welcome her, she dared hardly touch them lest they should fawn upon her splendid garments. She kissed me gently: I was all flour making the Christmas cake, and it would not have done to give me a hug; and then she looked round for Heathcliff Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw watched anxiously their meeting; thinking it would enable them to judge, in some measure, what grounds they had for hoping to succeed in separating the two friends. Heathcliff was hard to discover, at first. If he were careless, -49- Wuthering Heights and uncared for, before Catherine’s absence, he had been ten times more so since. Nobody but I even did him the kindness to call him a dirty boy and bid him wash himself once a week; and children of his age seldom have a natural pleasure in soap and water. Therefore, not to mention his clothes, which had seen three months, service in mire and dust, and his thick uncombed hair, the surface of his face and hands was dismally beclouded. He might well skulk behind the settle, on beholding such a bright, graceful damsel enter the house, instead of a rough-headed counterpart of himself^ as he expected. “Is Heathcliff not here?” she demanded, pulling off her gloves, and displaying fingers wonderfully whitened with doing nothing and staying indoors. “Heathcliff^ you may come forward/5 cried Mr. Hindley enjoying his discomfiture, and gratified to see what a forbidding young blackguard he would be compelled to present himself “Ybu may come and wish Miss Catherine welcome, like the other servants.” Cathy catching a glimpse of her friend in his concealment, flew to embrace him; she bestowed seven or eight kisses on his cheek within the second, and then stopped, and drawing back, burst into a laugh, exclaiming, “Why how very black and cross you look! and how—how funny and grim! But that’s because Fm used to Edgar and Isabella Linton. Well, Heathcliff^ have you forgotten me?” She had some reason to put the question, for shame and pride threw double gloom over his countenance, and kept him immovable. “Shake hands, Heathcliff/’ said Mr. Earnshaw condescendingly; “once in a way that is permitted.” “I shall not,” replied the boy finding his tongue at last; “I shall not stand to be laughed at. I shall not bear it!” And he would have broken from the circle, but Miss Cathy seized him again. “I did not mean to laugh at you,” she said, “I could not hinder myself: Heathcliff^ shake hands at least! What are you sulky for? It was only that you looked odd. If you wash your face and brush your hair, it will be all right: but you are so dirty!” -50- CHAPTER 7 She gazed concernedly at the dusky fingers she held in her own, and also at her dress; which she feared had gained no embellishment from its contact with his. “Abu neednY have touched me!” he answered, following her eye and snatching away his hand. “I shall be as dirty as I please: and I like to be dirty and I will be dirty” With that he dashed headforemost out of the room, amid the merriment of the master and mistress, and to the serious disturbance of Catherine; who could not comprehend how her remarks should have produced such an exhibition of bad temper. After playing lady’s maid to the new-comer, and putting my cakes in the oven, and making the house and kitchen cheerful with great fires, befitting Christmas-eve, I prepared to sit down and amuse myself by singing carols, all alone; regardless of Joseph’s affirmations that he considered the merry tunes I chose as next door to songs. He had retired to private prayer in his chamber, and Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw were engaging Miss/s attention by sundry gay trifles bought for her to present to the little Lintons, as an acknowledgment of their kindness. They had invited them to spend the morrow at Wuthering Heights, and the invitation had been accepted, on one condition: Mrs. Linton begged that her darlings might be kept carefully apart from that “naughty swearing boy\ Under these circumstances I remained solitary I smelt the rich scent of the heating spices; and admired the shining kitchen utensils, the polished clock, decked in holly the silver mugs ranged on a tray ready to be filled with mulled ale for supper; and above all, the speckless purity of my particular care一the scoured and well- swept floor. I gave due inward applause to every object, and then I remembered how old Earnshaw used to come in when all was tidied, and call me a cant lass, and slip a shilling into my hand as a Christmas-box; and from that I went on to think of his fondness for Heathcliff^ and his dread lest he should suffer neglect after death had removed him: and that naturally led me to consider the poor lad’s situation now; and from singing I changed my mind to -51- Wuthering Heights crying. It struck me soon, however, there would be more sense in endeavouring to repair some of his wrongs than shedding tears over them: I got up and walked into the court to seek him. He was not far; I found him smoothing the glossy coat of the new pony in the stable, and feeding the other beasts, according to custom. “Make haste, Heathcliff!” I said, uthe kitchen is so comfortable; and Joseph is up-stairs: make haste, and let me dress you smart before Miss Cathy comes out, and then you can sit together, with the whole hearth to yourselves, and have a long chatter till bedtime.” He proceeded with his task, and never turned his head towards me. “Come—are you coming?^^ I continued, “There’s a little cake for each of you, nearly enough; and you’ll need halfan-hour’s donning.^^ I waited five minutes, but getting no answer left him. Catherine supped with her brother and sister-in-law: Joseph and I joined at an unsociable meal, seasoned with reproofs on one side and sauciness on the other. His cake and cheese remained on the table all night for the fairies. He managed to continue work till nine o’clock,and then marched dumb and dour to his chamber. Cathy sat up late, having a world of things to order for the reception of her new friends: she came into the kitchen once to speak to her old one; but he was gone, and she only stayed to ask what was the matter with him, and then went back. In the morning he rose early; and, as it was a holiday; carried his ill-humour onto the moors; not re- appearing till the family were departed for church. Fasting and reflection seemed to have brought him to a better spirit. He hung about me for a while, and having screwed up his courage, exclaimed abruptly~~'‘Nelly make me decent,Fm going to be good”. “High time, Heathcliff/’ I said, “you have grieved Catherine: she’s sorry she ever came home, I daresay! It looks as if you envied her, because she is more thought of than you.” The notion of envying Catherine was incomprehensible to him, but the notion of grieving her he understood clearly enough. -52 - CHAPTER 7 “Did she say she was grieved?” he inquired, looking very serious. “She cried when I told her you were off again this morning.w “Wfell, I cried last night,M he returned, “and I had more reason to cry than she.” uYes: you had the reason of going to bed with a proud heart and an empty stomach,M said I. “Proud people breed sad sorrows for themselves. But, if you be ashamed of your touchiness, you must ask pardon, mind, when she comes in. Vou must go up and offer to kiss her, and say~~you know best what to say; only do it heartily and not as if you thought her converted into a stranger by her grand dress. And now, though I have dinner to get ready Uli steal time to arrange you so that Edgar Linton shall look quite a doll beside you: and that he does. Vou are younger, and yet, Fll be bound, you are taller and twice as broad across the shoulders; you could knock him down in a twinkling; don’t you feel that you could?” Heathcliff’s face brightened a moment; then it was overcast afresh, and he sighed. “But, Nelly if I knocked him down twenty times, that wouldn’t make him less handsome or me more so. I wish I had light hair and a fair skin, and was dressed and behaved as well, and had a chance of being as rich as he will be!” ‘And cried for mamma at every turn,” I added, “and trembled if a country lad heaved his fist against you, and sat at home all day for a shower of rain. Oh, Heathcliffi you are showing a poor spirit! Come to the glass, and I’ll let you see what you should wish. Do you mark those two lines between your eyes; and those thick brows, that, instead of rising arched, sink in the middle; and that couple of black fiends, so deeply buried, who never open their windows boldly; but lurk glinting under them, like deviFs spies? Wish and learn to smooth away the surly wrinkles, to raise your lids frankly; and change the fiends to confident, innocent angels, suspecting and doubting nothing, and always seeing friends where they are not sure of foes. Don’t get the expression of a vicious cur -53- Wuthering Heights that appears to know the kicks it gets are its desert, and yet hates all the world, as well as the kicker, for what it suffers.” “In other words, I must wish for Edgar Lintorfs great blue eyes and even forehead,w he replied. “I do—and that won’t help me to them.,, t6A good heart will help you to a bonny face, my lad,” I continued, “if you were a regular black; and a bad one will turn the bonniest into something worse than ugly And now that we’ve done washing, and combing, and sulking—tell me whether you don’t think yourself rather handsome? I’ll tell you, I do. Ybu’re fit for a prince in disguise. Who knows but your father was Emperor of China, and your mother an Indian queen, each of them able to buy up, with one week’s income, Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange together? And you were kidnapped by wicked sailors and brought to England. Were I in your place, I would frame high notions of my birth; and the thoughts of what I was should give me courage and dignity to support the oppressions of a little farmerr’ So I chattered on; and Heathcliff gradually lost his frown and began to look quite pleasant, when all at once our conversation was interrupted by a rumbling sound moving up the road and entering the court. He ran to the window and I to the door, just in time to behold the two Lintons descend from the family carriage, smothered in cloaks and furs, and the Earnshaws dismount from their horses: they often rode to church in winter. Catherine took a hand of each of the children, and brought them into the house and set them before the fire, which quickly put colour into their white faces. I urged my companion to hasten now and show his amiable humour, and he willingly obeyed; but ill luck would have it that, as he opened the door leading from the kitchen on one side, Hindley opened it on the other. They met, and the master, irritated at seeing him clean and cheerful, or, perhaps, eager to keep his promise to Mrs. Linton, shoved him back with a sudden thrust, and angrily bade Joseph “keep the fellow out of the room—send him into the -54 - CHAPTER 7 garret till dinner is over. He’ll be cramming his fingers in the tarts and stealing the fruit, if left alone with them a minute.” “Nay sir,” I could not avoid answering, “he’ll touch nothing, not he: and I suppose he must have his share of the dainties as well as we.” “He shall have his share of my hand, if I catch him downstairs till dark,” cried Hindleg “Begone, you vagabond! What! you are attempting the coxcomb, are you? Wait till I get hold of those elegant locks—see if I won’t pull them a bit longer!” “They are long enough already,M observed Master Linton, peeping from the doorway; “I wonder they don’t make his head ache. It’s like a colt’s mane over his eyes!” He ventured this remark without any intention to insult; but Heathcliff’s violent nature was not prepared to endure the appearance of impertinence from one whom he seemed to hate, even then, as a rival. He seized a tureen of hot apple sauce, the first thing that came under his gripe, and dashed it full against the speaker’s face and neck; who instantly commenced a lament that brought Isabella and Catherine hurrying to the place. Mr. Earnshaw snatched up the culprit directly and conveyed him to his chamber; where, doubtless, he administered a rough remedy to cool the fit of passion, for he reappeared red and breathless. I got the dishcloth, and rather spitefully scrubbed Edgar’s nose and mouth, affirming it served him right for meddling. His sister began weeping to go home, and Cathy stood by confounded, blushing for all. “Ybu should not have spoken to him!,, she expostulated with Master Linton. “He was in a bad temper, and now Ydu’ve spoilt your visit; and he’ll be flogged: I hate him to be flogged! I can’t eat my dinner. Why did you speak to him, Edgar?” “I didn’t,” sobbed the youth, escaping from my hands, and finishing the remainder of the purification with his cambric pocket-handkerchief “I promised mamma that I wouldn’t say one word to him, and I didn’t.” "'Well, don’t cry;” replied Catherine, contemptuously; “you’re -55- Wuthering Heights not killed. Don’t make more mischief; my brother is coming: be quiet! Hush, Isabella! Has anybody hurt you?J, “There, there, children—to your seats!” cried Hindley bustling in. “That brute of a lad has warmed me nicely Next time, Master Edgar, take the law into your own fists一it will give you an appetite!” The little party recovered its equanimity at sight of the fragrant feast. They were hungry after their ride, and easily consoled, since no real harm had befallen them. Mr. Earnshaw carved bountiful platefuls, and the mistress made them merry with lively talk. I waited behind her chair, and was pained to behold Catherine, with dry eyes and an indifferent air, commence cutting up the wing of a goose before her. ‘An unfeeling child,” I thought to myselfj “how lightly she dismisses her old playmate’s troubles. I could not have imagined her to be so selfish.” She lifted a mouthful to her lips: then she set it down again: her cheeks flushed, and the tears gushed over them. She slipped her fork to the floor, and hastily dived under the cloth to conceal her emotion. I did not call her unfeeling long; for I perceived she was in purgatory throughout the day and wearying to find an opportunity of getting by herselfj or paying a visit to Heathcliffj who had been locked up by the master: as I discovered, on endeavouring to introduce to him a private mess of victuals. In the evening we had a dance. Cathy begged that he might be liberated then, as Isabella Linton had no partner: her entreaties were vain, and I was appointed to supply the deficiency We got rid of all gloom in the excitement of the exercise, and our pleasure was increased by the arrival of the Gimmerton band, mustering fifteen strong: a trumpet, a trombone, clarionets, bassoons, French horns, and a bass viol, besides singers. They go the rounds of all the respectable houses, and receive contributions every Christmas, and we esteemed it a first-rate treat to hear them. After the usual carols had been sung, we set them to songs and glees. Mrs. Earnshaw loved the music, and so they gave us plenty Catherine loved it too: but she said it sounded sweetest at -56- CHAPTER 7 the top of the steps, and she went up in the dark: I followed. They shut the house door below, never noting our absence, it was so full of people. She made no stay at the stairs’-head,but mounted farther, to the garret where Heathcliff was confined, and called him. He stubbornly declined answering for a while: she persevered, and finally persuaded him to hold communion with her through the boards. I let the poor things converse unmolested, till I supposed the songs were going to cease, and the singers to get some refreshment: then I clambered up the ladder to warn her. Instead of finding her outside, I heard her voice within. The little monkey had crept by the skylight of one garret, along the roofj into the skylight of the other, and it was with the utmost difficulty I could coax her out again. When she did come, Heathcliff came with her, and she insisted that I should take him into the kitchen, as my fellow-servant had gone to a neighbour’s, to be removed from the sound of our “devil’s psalmody”,as it pleased him to call it. I told them I intended by no means to encourage their tricks: but as the prisoner had never broken his fast since yesterday’s dinner, I would wink at his cheating Mr. Hindley that once. He went down: I set him a stool by the fire, and offered him a quantity of good things: but he was sick and could eat little, and my attempts to entertain him were thrown away He leant his two elbows on his knees, and his chin on his hands, and remained wrapt in dumb meditation. On my inquiring the subject of his thoughts, he answered gravely—“I’m trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back. I don’t care how long I wait, if I can only do it at last. I hope he will not die before I do”! “For shame, Heathcliff!” said I. “It is for God to punish wicked people; we should learn to forgive.” “No, God won’t have the satisfaction that I shall,” he returned, “I only wish I knew the best way! Let me alone, and I’ll plan it out: while Fm thinking of that I don’t feel pain.” “But, Mr. Lockwood, I forget these tales cannot divert you. I’m annoyed how I should dream of chattering on at such a rate; -57- Wuthering Heights and your gruel cold, and you nodding for bed! I could have told Heathcliff’s history all that you need hear, in half a dozen words.” 木 木* 木 本 本 Thus interrupting herself the housekeeper rose, and proceeded to lay aside her sewing; but I felt incapable of moving from the hearth, and I was very far from nodding. “Sit still, Mrs. Dean,” I cried; “do sit still another half hour. %u’ve done just right to tell the story leisurely That is the method I like; and you must finish it in the same style. I am interested in every character you have mentioned, more or less.” “The clock is on the stroke of eleven, sir.” “No matter一I’m not accustomed to go to bed in the long hours. One or two is early enough for a person who lies till ten.” shouldn’t lie till ten. There’s the very prime of the morning gone long before that time. A person who has not done one-half his da/s work by ten o’clock,runs a chance of leaving the other half undone.” “Nevertheless, Mrs. Dean, resume your chair; because to- morrow I intend lengthening the night till afternoon. I prognosticate for myself an obstinate cold, at least.” “I hope not, sir. Well, you must allow me to leap over some three years; during that space Mrs. Earnshaw—” “No, no, Fll allow nothing of the sort! Are you acquainted with the mood of mind in which, if you were seated alone, and the cat licking its kitten on the rug before you, you would watch the operation so intently that puss’s neglect of one ear would put you seriously out of temper?” aA terribly lazy mood, I should say” “On the contrary a tiresomely active one. It is mine, at present; and, therefore, continue minutely I perceive that people in these regions acquire over people in towns the value that a spider in a dungeon does over a spider in a cottage, to their various occupants; and yet the deepened attraction is not entirely owing to the situation of the looker-on. They do live more in earnest, -58- CHAPTER 7 more in themselves, and less in surface change, and frivolous external things. I could fancy a love for life here almost possible; and I was a fixed unbeliever in any love of a year’s standing. One state resembles setting a hungry man down to a single dish, on which he may concentrate his entire appetite and do it justice; the other, introducing him to a table laid out by French cooks: he can perhaps extract as much enjoyment from the whole; but each part is a mere atom in his regard and remembrance.M “Oh! here we are the same as anywhere else, when you get to know us,” observed Mrs. Dean, somewhat puzzled at my speech. “Excuse me,” I responded, “you,my good friend, are a striking evidence against that assertion. Excepting a few provincialisms of slight consequence, you have no marks of the manners which I am habituated to consider as peculiar to your class. I am sure you have thought a great deal more than the generality of servants think. You have been compelled to cultivate your reflective faculties for want of occasions for frittering your life away in silly trifles.” Mrs. Dean laughed. “I certainly esteem myself a steady; reasonable kind of body;” she said, “not exactly from living among the hills and seeing one set of faces, and one series of actions, from year’s end to year’s end; but I have undergone sharp discipline, which has taught me wisdom; and then, I have read more than you would fancy; Mr. Lockwood. %u could not open a book in this library that I have not looked into, and got something out of also: unless it be that range of Greek and Latin, and that of French; and those I know one from another: it is as much as you can expect of a poor man’s daughter. However, if I am to follow my story in true gossip’s fashion, I had better go on; and instead of leaping three years, I will be content to pass to the next summer—the summer of 1778, that is nearly twenty-three years ago.” -5少 CHAPTER 8 On the morning of a fine June day my first bonny little nursling, and the last of the ancient Earnshaw stock, was born. We were busy with the hay in a far-away field, when the girl that usually brought our breakfasts came running an hour too soon across the meadow and up the lane, calling me as she ran. “Oh, such a grand bairn!” she panted out, “The finest lad that ever breathed! But the doctor says missis must go: he says she’s been in a consumption these many months. I heard him tell Mr. Hindley: and now she has nothing to keep her, and she’ll be dead before winter, ^ou must come home directly Vbu’re to nurse it, Nelly: to feed it with sugar and milk, and take care of it day and night. I wish I were you, because it will be all yours when there is no missis!” “But is she very I asked, flinging down my rake and tying my bonnet. “I guess she is; yet she looks bravely;” replied the girl, “and she talks as if she thought of living to see it grow a man. She’s out of her head for joy, it’s such a beauty! If I were her I’m certain I should not die: I should get better at the bare sight of it, in spite of Kenneth. I was fairly mad at him. Dame Archer brought the cherub down to master, in the house, and his face just began to light up, then the old croaker steps forward, and says he— “Earnshax^ it’s a blessing your wife has been spared to leave you this son. When she came, I felt convinced we shouldn’t keep her long; and now, I must tell you, the winter will probably finish her. Don’t take on, and fret about it too much: it can’t be helped. And besides, you should have known better than to choose such a rush of a lass”! -6o- CHAPTER 8 "And what did the master answer?” I inquired. “I think he swore: but I didn’t mind him, I was straining to see the bairn,” and she bc^gan again to describe it rapturously I, as zealous as herself^ hurried eagerly home to admire, on my part; though I was very sad for Hindley’s sake. He had room in his heart only for two idols—his wife and himself: he doted on both, and adored one, and I couldn’t conceive how he would bear the loss. When we got to Wuthering Heights, there he stood at the front door; and, as I passed in, I asked, “how was the baby?” “Nearly ready to run about, Nell!” he replied, putting on a cheerful smile. 'And the mistress?” I ventured to inquire; “the doctor says she’s—” “Damn the doctor!he interrupted, reddening, “Frances is quite right: she’ll be perfectly well by this time next week. Are you going up-stairs? will you tell her that Pll come, if she’ll promise not to talk. I left her because she would not hold her tongue; and she must—tell her Mr. Kenneth says she must be quiet.” I delivered this message to Mrs. Earnshaw; she seemed in flighty spirits, and replied merrily “I hardly spoke a word, Ellen, and there he has gone out twice, crying. Well, say I promise I won’t speak: but that does not bind me not to laugh at him!” Poor soul! Till within a week of her death that gay heart never failed her; and her husband persisted doggedly; nay, furiously; in affirming her health improved every day When Kenneth warned him that his medicines were useless at that stage of the malady and he needn’t put him to further expense by attending her, he retorted, “I know you need not—she’s well—she does not want any more attendance from you! She never was in a consumption. It was a fever; and it is gone: her pulse is as slow as mine nox^ and her cheek as cool.” He told his wife the same story; and she seemed to believe him; but one night, while leaning on his shoulder, in the act of -6l- Wuthering Heights saying she thought she should be able to get up to-morrow; a fit of coughing took her—a very slight one—he raised her in his arms; she put her two hands about his neck, her face changed, and she was dead. As the girl had anticipated, the child Hareton fell wholly into my hands. Mr. Earnshaw; provided he saw him healthy and never heard him cry; was contented, as far as regarded him. For himself, he grew desperate: his sorrow was of that kind that will not lament. He neither wept nor prayed; he cursed and defied: execrated God and man, and gave himself up to reckless dissipation. The servants could not bear his tyrannical and evil conduct long: Joseph and I were the only two that would stay I had not the heart to leave my charge; and besides, you knov^ I had been his foster-sister, and excused his behaviour more readily than a stranger would. Joseph remained to hector over tenants and labourers; and because it was his vocation to be where he had plenty of wickedness to reprove. The master’s bad ways and bad companions formed a pretty example for Catherine and HeathclifE His treatment of the latter was enough to make a fiend of a saint. And, truly it appeared as if the lad were possessed of something diabolical at that period. He delighted to witness Hindley degrading himself past redemption; and became daily more notable for savage sullenness and ferocity I could not half tell what an infernal house we had. The curate dropped calling, and nobody decent came near us, at last; unless Edgar Linton’s visits to Miss Cathy might be an exception. At fifteen she was the queen of the country-side; she had no peer; and she did turn out a haughty headstrong creature! I own I did not like her, after infancy was past; and I vexed her frequently by trying to bring down her arrogance: she never took an aversion to me, though. She had a wondrous constancy to old attachments: even Heathcliff kept his hold on her affections unalterably; and young Linton, with all his superiority; found it difficult to make an equally deep impression. He was my late master: that is his -62- CHAPTER 8 portrait over the fireplace. It used to hang on one side, and his wife’s on the other; but hers has been removed, or else you might see something of what she was. Can you make that out? Mrs. Dean raised the candle, and I discerned a soft-featured face, exceedingly resembling the young lady at the Heights, but more pensive and amiable in expression. It formed a sweet picture. The long light hair curled slightly on the temples; the eyes were large and serious; the figure almost too graceful. I did not marvel how Catherine Earnshaw could forget her first friend for such an individual. I marvelled much how he, with a mind to correspond with his person, could fancy my idea of Catherine Earnshaw 4A very agreeable portrait,M I observed to the house-keeper, “Is it like?" “Yes,” she answered, “but he looked better when he was animated; that is his everyday countenance: he wanted spirit in general.” Catherine had kept up her acquaintance with the Lintons since her five-weeks’ residence among them; and as she had no temptation to show her rough side in their company and had the sense to be ashamed of being rude where she experienced such invariable courtesy; she imposed unwittingly on the old lady and gentleman by her ingenious cordiality; gained the admiration of Isabella, and the heart and soul of her brother: acquisitions that flattered her from the first—for she was full of ambition—and led her to adopt a double character without exactly intending to deceive any one. In the place where she heard HeathclifF termed a “vulgar young ruffian” and “worse than a brute”,she took care not to act like him; but at home she had small inclination to practise politeness that would only be laughed at, and restrain an unruly nature when it would bring her neither credit nor praise. Mr. Edgar seldom mustered courage to visit Wuthering Heights openly He had a terror of Earnshaw’s reputation, and shrunk from encountering him; and yet he was always received with our -63- Wuthering Heights best attempts at civility: the master himself avoided offending him, knowing why he came; and if he could not be gracious, kept out of the way I rather think his appearance there was distasteful to Catherine; she was not artful, never played the coquette, and had evidently an objection to her two friends meeting at all; for when Heathcliff expressed contempt of Linton in his presence, she could not half coincide, as she did in his absence; and when Linton evinced disgust and antipathy to Heathcliffi she dared not treat his sentiments with indifference, as if depreciation of her playmate were of scarcely any consequence to her. Fve had many a laugh at her perplexities and untold troubles, which she vainly strove to hide from my mockery That sounds ill-natured: but she was so proud it became really impossible to pity her distresses, till she should be chastened into more humility She did bring herself finally to confess, and to confide in me: there was not a soul else that she might fashion into an adviser. Mr. Hindley had gone from home one afternoon, and Heathcliff presumed to give himself a holiday on the strength of it. He had reached the age of sixteen then, I think, and without having bad features, or being deficient in intellect, he contrived to convey an impression of inward and outward repulsiveness that his present aspect retains no traces o£ In the first place, he had by that time lost the benefit of his early education: continual hard work, begun soon and concluded late, had extinguished any curiosity he once possessed in pursuit of knowledge, and any love for books or learning. His childhood’s sense of superiority; instilled into him by the favours of old Mr. Earnshaw; was faded away He struggled long to keep up an equality with Catherine in her studies, and yielded with poignant though silent regret: but he yielded completely; and there was no prevailing on him to take a step in the way of moving upward, when he found he must, necessarily; sink beneath his former level. Then personal appearance sympathised with mental deterioration: he acquired a slouching gait and ignoble look; his naturally reserved disposition -6个 CHAPTER 8 was exaggerated into an almost idiotic excess of unsociable moroseness; and he took a grim pleasure, apparentlj; in exciting the aversion rather than the esteem of his few acquaintances. Catherine and he were constant companions still at his seasons of respite from labour; but he had ceased to express his fondness for her in words, and recoiled with angry suspicion from her girlish caresses, as if conscious there could be no gratification in lavishing such marks of affection on him. On the before-named occasion he came into the house to announce his intention of doing nothing, while I was assisting Miss Cathy to arrange her dress: she had not reckoned on his taking it into his head to be idle; and imagining she would have the whole place to herselfj she managed, by some means, to inform Mr. Edgar of her brother’s absence, and was then preparing to receive him. “Cathy; are you busy this afternoon?” asked Heathcliffi ‘Are you going anywhere?” “No, it is raining/5 she answered. “Why have you that silk frock on, then?” he said, “Nobody coming here, I hope?” “Not that I know of/’ stammered Miss, “but you should be in the field no\^ Heathcliff It is an hour past dinnertime: I thought you were gone.” “Hindley does not often free us from his accursed presence/ observed the boy; “I’ll not work any more to-day: I’ll stay with you.” “Oh,but Joseph will she suggested, “you’d better go!” ‘Joseph is loading lime on the further side of Penistone Crags; it will take him till dark, and he’ll never know” So, saying, he lounged to the fire, and sat down. Catherine reflected an instant, with knitted brows—she found it needful to smooth the way for an intrusion. “Isabella and Edgar Linton talked of calling this afternoon,M she said, at the conclusion of a minute’s silence, it rains, I hardly expect them; but they may come, and if they do, you run the risk of being scolded for no good.” -65- Wuthering Heights “Order Ellen to say you are engaged, Cathy” he persisted, “don’t turn me out for those pitiful, silly friends of yours! I’m on the point, sometimes, of complaining that they—but I’ll not—” “That they what?” cried Catherine, gazing at him with a troubled countenance. “Oh, Nelly!” she added petulantly; jerking her head away from my hands, “Vdu’ve combed my hair quite out of curl! That’s enough; let me alone. What are you on the point of complaining about, Heathcliff?” “Nothing~only look at the almanack on that wall;” he pointed to a framed sheet hanging near the window; and continued, “The crosses are for the evenings you have spent with the Lintons, the dots for those spent with me. Do you see? Fve marked every day” uYes—very foolish: as if I took notice!” replied Catherine, in a peevish tone. ‘And where is the sense of that?” “lb show that I do take notice,” said Heathcliff ‘And should I always be sitting with you?” she demanded, growing more irritated. “What good do I get? What do you talk about? You might be dumb, or a baby for anything you say to amuse me, or for anything you do, either!” Uybu never told me before that I talked too little, or that you disliked my company Cathy!,, exclaimed Heathcliff, in much agitation. “It’s no company at all, when people know nothing and say nothing,n she muttered. Her companion rose up, but he hadn’t time to express his feelings further, for a horse’s feet were heard on the flags, and having knocked gently young Linton entered, his face brilliant with delight at the unexpected summon she had received. Doubtless Catherine marked the difference between her friends, as one came in and the other went out. The contrast resembled what you see in exchanging a bleak, hilly coal country for a beautiful fertile valley; and his voice and greeting were as opposite as his aspect. He had a sweet, low manner of speaking, and pronounced his words as you do: that’s less gruff than we talk here, and softer. -66- CHAPTER 8 “I’m not come too soon, am I?” he said, casting a look at me: I had begun to wipe the plate, and tidy some drawers at the far end in the dresser. “No,” answered Catherine. “What are you doing there, Nelly?,, “My work, Miss,” I replied. (Mr. Hindley had given me directions to make a third party in any private visits Linton chose to pay) She stepped behind me and whispered crossly “THake yourself and your dusters off; when company are in the house, servants don’t commence scouring and cleaning in the room where they are!” “It’s a good opportunity now that master is away” I answered aloud, “he hates me to be fidgeting over these things in his presence. Fm sure Mr. Edgar will excuse me.” “I hate you to be fidgeting in my presence,exclaimed the young lady imperiously not allowing her guest time to speak: she had failed to recover her equanimity since the little dispute with HeathclifE “I’m sorry for it, Miss Catherine,n was my response; and I proceeded assiduously with my occupation. She, supposing Edgar could not see her, snatched the cloth from my hand, and pinched me, with a prolonged wrench, very spitefully on the arm. I’ve said I did not love her, and rather relished mortifying her vanity now and then: besides, she hurt me extremely; so I started up from my knees, and screamed out, “Oh, Miss, that’s a nasty trick! You have no right to nip me, and Pm not going to bear it.” “I didn’t touch you, you lying creature!” cried she, her fingers tingling to repeat the act, and her ears red with rage. She never had power to conceal her passion, it always set her whole complexion in a blaze. “What’s that, then?” I retorted, showing a decided purple witness to refute her. She stamped her foot, wavered a moment, and then, irresistibly -67- Wuthering Heights impelled by the naughty spirit within her, slapped me on the cheek: a stinging blow that filled both eyes with water. “Catherine, love! Catherine!” interposed Linton, greatly shocked at the double fault of falsehood and violence which his idol had committed. “Leave the room, Ellen!” she repeated, trembling all over. Little Hareton, who followed me everywhere, and was sitting near me on the floor, at seeing my tears commenced crying himselfj and sobbed out complaints against “wicked aunt Cath/’, which drew her fury on to his unlucky head: she seized his shoulders, and shook him till the poor child waxed livid, and Edgar thoughtlessly laid hold of her hands to deliver him. In an instant one was wrung free, and the astonished young man felt it applied over his own ear in a way that could not be mistaken for jest. He drew back in consternation. I lifted Hareton in my arms, and walked off to the kitchen with him, leaving the door of communication open, for I was curious to watch how they would settle their disagreement. The insulted visitor moved to the spot where he had laid his hat, pale and with a quivering lip. “That’s right!” I said to myself “Take warning and begone! It’s a kindness to let you have a glimpse of her genuine disposition.” uWhere are you going?” demanded Catherine, advancing to the door. He swerved aside, and attempted to pass. “Abu must not go!” she exclaimed, energetically “I must and shall!” he replied in a subdued voice. “No,” she persisted, grasping the handle, “not yet, Edgar Linton: sit down; you shall not leave me in that temper. I should be miserable all night, and I won’t be miserable for you!” “Can I stay after you have struck me?” asked Linton. Catherine was mute. “Y)u’ve made me afraid and ashamed of you,” he continued, “I’ll not come here again!” Her eyes began to glisten and her lids to twinkle. -68- CHAPTER 8 'And you told a deliberate untruth!” he said. “I didn’t!” she cried, recovering her speech, “I did nothing deliberately Well, go, if you please―get away! And now Fll cry— Uli cry myself sick!” She dropped down on her knees by a chair, and set to weeping in serious earnest. Edgar persevered in his resolution as far as the court; there he lingered. I resolved to encourage him. “Miss is dreadfully wayward, sir,” I called out, 'As bad as any marred child: Ybu’t better be riding home, or else she will be sick, only to grieve us.” The soft thing looked askance through the window: he possessed the power to depart as much as a cat possesses the power to leave a mouse half killed, or a bird half eaten. Ah, I thought, there will be no saving him: he’s doomed, and flies to his fate! And so it was: he turned abruptly hastened into the house again, shut the door behind him; and when I went in a while after to inform them that Earnshaw had come home rabid drunk, ready to pull the whole place about our ears (his ordinary frame of mind in that condition), I saw the quarrel had merely effected a closer intimacy—had broken the outworks of youthful timidity; and enabled them to forsake the disguise of friendship, and confess themselves lovers. Intelligence of Mr. Hindle/s arrival drove Linton speedily to his horse, and Catherine to her chamber. I went to hide little Hareton, and to take the shot out of the master’s fowling-piece, which he was fond of playing with in his insane excitement, to the hazard of the lives of any who provoked, or even attracted his notice too much; and I had hit upon the plan of removing it, that he might do less mischief if he did go the length of firing the gun. 命 CHAPTER 9 He entered, vociferating oaths dreadful to hear; and caught me in the act of stowing his son away in the kitchen cupboard. Hareton was impressed with a wholesome terror of encountering either his wild beast’s fondness or his madman’s rage; for in one he ran a chance of being squeezed and kissed to death, and in the other of being flung into the fire, or dashed against the wall; and the poor thing remained perfectly quiet wherever I chose to put him. “There, Fve found it out at last!” cried Hindleg pulling me back by the skin of my neck, like a dog. “By heaven and hell, Yz)u’ve sworn between you to murder that child! I know how it is, now, that he is always out of my way But, with the help of Satan, I shall make you swallow the carving-knife, Nelly! ydu needn’t laugh; for Fve just crammed Kenneth, head-downmost, in the Black-horse marsh; and two is the same as one—and I want to kill some of you: I shall have no rest till I do!,^ “But I don’t like the carving-knife, Mr. Hindley;” I answered, “it has been cutting red herrings. Ft rather be shot, if you please.M “Ybu’t rather be damned!” he said, “and so you shall. No law in England can hinder a man from keeping his house decent, and mine’s abominable! Open your mouth.” He held the knife in his hand, and pushed its point between my teeth: but, for my part, I was never much afraid of his vagaries. I spat out, and affirmed it tasted detestably—I would not take it on any account. “Oh!” said he, releasing me, “I see that hideous little villain is not Hareton: I beg your pardon, Nell. If it be, he deserves flaying alive for not running to welcome me, and for screaming as if I were a goblin. Unnatural cub, come hither! Pll teach thee to impose on a good-hearted, deluded father. Now; don’t you think the lad -70- CHAPTER 9 would be handsomer cropped? It makes a dog fiercer, and I love something fierce—get me a scissors—something fierce and trim! Besides, it’s infernal affectation—devilish conceit it is, to cherish our ears—we’re asses enough without them. Hush, child, hush! Well then, it is my darling! wisht, dry thy eyes一there’s a joy; kiss me. What! it won’t? Kiss me, Hareton! Damn thee, kiss me! By God, as if I would rear such a monster! As sure asFm living, Fll break the brat’s neck.” Poor Hareton was squalling and kicking in his father’s arms with all his might, and redoubled his yells when he carried him up- stairs and lifted him over the banister. I cried out that he would frighten the child into fits, and ran to rescue him. As I reached them, Hindley leant forward on the rails to listen to a noise below; almost forgetting what he had in his hands. “Who is that?” he asked, hearing some one approaching the stairs’-foot. I leant forward also, for the purpose of signing to Heathcliff^ whose step I recognised, not to come further; and, at the instant when my eye quitted Hareton, he gave a sudden spring, delivered himself from the careless grasp that held him, and fell. There was scarcely time to experience a thrill of horror before we saw that the little wretch was safe. Heathcliff arrived underneath just at the critical moment; by a natural impulse he arrested his descent, and setting him on his feet, looked up to discover the author of the accident. A miser who has parted with a lucky lottery ticket for five shillings, and finds next day he has lost in the bargain five thousand pounds, could not show a blanker countenance than he did on beholding the figure of Mr. Earnshaw above. It expressed, plainer than words could do, the intensest anguish at having made himself the instrument of thwarting his own revenge. Had it been dark, I daresay he would have tried to remedy the mistake by smashing Hareton’s skull on the steps; but, we witnessed his salvation; and I was presently below with my precious charge pressed to my heart. Hindley descended more leisurely; sobered and abashed. -71- Wuthering Heights “It is your fault, Ellen,” he said, “you should have kept him out of sight: you should have taken him from me! Is he injured anywhere?” “Injured!” I cried angrily “if he is not killed, he’ll be an idiot! Oh! I wonder his mother does not rise from her grave to see how you use him. ybu’re worse than a heathen—treating your own flesh and blood in that manner!M He attempted to touch the child, who, on finding himself with me, sobbed off his terror directly At the first finger his father laid on him, however, he shrieked again louder than before, and struggled as if he would go into convulsions. “Abu shall not meddle with him!” I continued, “He hates you— they all hate you—that’s the truth! A happy family you have; and a pretty state you’re come to!” “I shall come to a prettier, yet, Nelly;” laughed the misguided man, recovering his hardness. ‘At present, convey yourself and him away And hark you, Heathcliff! clear you too quite from my reach and hearing. I wouldn’t murder you to-night; unless, perhaps, I set the house on fire: but that’s as my fancy goes.” While saying this he took a pint bottle of brandy from the dresser, and poured some into a tumbler. “Nay; don’t!” I entreated, “Mr. Hindleg do take warning. Have mercy on this unfortunate boy, if you care nothing for yourself!” 'Any one will do better for him than I shall,” he answered. “Have mercy on your own soul!” I said, endeavouring to snatch the glass from his hand. “Not I! On the contrary I shall have great pleasure in sending it to perdition to punish its Maker,M exclaimed the blasphemer. “Here’s to its hearty damnation!” He drank the spirits and impatiently bade us go; terminating his command with a sequel of horrid imprecations too bad to repeat or remember. “It’s a pity he cannot kill himself with drink,” observed Heathcliffi muttering an echo of curses back when the door was shut. “He’s doing his very utmost; but his constitution defies him. -72- CHAPTER 9 Mr. Kenneth says he would wager his mare that he’ll outlive any man on this side Gimmerton, and go to the grave a hoary sinner; unless some happy chance out of the common course befall him.” I went into the kitchen, and sat down to lull my little lamb to sleep. Heathcliff^ as I thought, walked through to the barn. It turned out afterwards that he only got as far as the other side the settle, when he flung himself on a bench by the wall, removed from the fire and remained silent. I was rocking Hareton on my knee, and humming a song that began,— It was far in the night, and the bairnies grat, The mither beneath the mools heard that, when Miss Cathy who had listened to the hubbub from her room, put her head in, and whispered,一‘Are you alone, Nelly?,, wVes, Miss,” I replied. She entered and approached the hearth. I, supposing she was going to say something, looked up. The expression of her face seemed disturbed and anxious. Her lips were half asunder, as if she meant to speak, and she drew a breath; but it escaped in a sigh instead of a sentence. I resumed my song; not having forgotten her recent behaviour. “Where’s Heathcliff?” she said, interrupting me. ‘About his work in the stable,w was my answer. He did not contradict me; perhaps he had fallen into a doze. There followed another long pause, during which I perceived a drop or two trickle from Catherine’s cheek to the flags. Is she sorry for her shameful conduct?一I asked myself That will be a novelty: but she may come to the point—as she will—I sha’n’t help her! No, she felt small trouble regarding any subject, save her own concerns. “Oh, dear!” she cried at last, “I’m very unhappy!” ‘A pity” observed I. “Abu’re hard to please; so many friends and so few cares, and can’t make yourself content!” -73- Wuthering Heights “Nelly, will you keep a secret for me?” she pursued, kneeling down by me, and lifting her winsome eyes to my face with that sort of look which turns off bad temper, even when one has all the right in the world to indulge it. “Is it worth keeping?” I inquired, less sulkily uYes, and it worries me, and I must let it out! I want to know what I should do. To-day; Edgar Linton has asked me to marry him, and Pve given him an answer. No\^ before I tell you whether it was a consent or denial, you tell me which it ought to have been.” “Really Miss Catherine, how can I know?” I replied, “To be sure, considering the exhibition you performed in his presence this afternoon, I might say it would be wise to refuse him: since he asked you after that, he must either be hopelessly stupid or a venturesome fool.” “If you talk so, I won’t tell you any more,” she returned, peevishly rising to her feet. “I accepted him, Nelly Be quick, and say whether I was wrong!w “Ydu accepted him! Then what good is it discussing the matter? %u have pledged your word, and cannot retract.” “But say whether I should have done so~ o!” she exclaimed in an irritated tone; chafing her hands together, and frowning. “There are many things to be considered before that question can be answered properly,w I said, sententiously “First and foremost, do you love Mr. Edgar?” “Who can help it? Of course I do,” she answered. Then I put her through the following catechism: for a girl of twenty-two it was not injudicious. “Why do you love him, Miss Cathy?” “Nonsense, I do—that’s sufficient.,^ “By no means; you must say why?” “Wfell, because he is handsome, and pleasant to be with.” “Bad!” was my commentary 'And because he is young and cheerful.” -74- CHAPTER 9 "Bad, Still.,, ‘And because he loves me.” 4小宝宝会吃着不eauty! I should scarcely have known you: you look like a lady now Isabella Linton is not to be compared with her, is she, Frances?” “Isabella has not her natural advantages,w replied his wife, “but she must mind and not grow wild again here. Ellen, help Miss Catherine off with her things—Stay dear, you will disarrange your curls—let me untie your hat.” I removed the habit, and there shone forth beneath a grand plaid silk frock, white trousers, and burnished shoes; and, while her eyes sparkled joyfully when the dogs came bounding up to welcome her, she dared hardly touch them lest they should fawn upon her splendid garments. She kissed me gently: I was all flour making the Christmas cake, and it would not have done to give me a hug; and then she looked round for Heathcliff Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw watched anxiously their meeting; thinking it would enable them to judge, in some measure, what grounds they had for hoping to succeed in separating the two friends. Heathcliff was hard to discover, at first. If he were careless, -49- Wuthering Heights and uncared for, before Catherine’s absence, he had been ten times more so since. Nobody but I even did him the kindness to call him a dirty boy and bid him wash himself once a week; and children of his age seldom have a natural pleasure in soap and water. Therefore, not to mention his clothes, which had seen three months, service in mire and dust, and his thick uncombed hair, the surface of his face and hands was dismally beclouded. He might well skulk behind the settle, on beholding such a bright, graceful damsel enter the house, instead of a rough-headed counterpart of himself^ as he expected. “Is Heathcliff not here?” she demanded, pulling off her gloves, and displaying fingers wonderfully whitened with doing nothing and staying indoors. “Heathcliff^ you may come forward/5 cried Mr. Hindley enjoying his discomfiture, and gratified to see what a forbidding young blackguard he would be compelled to present himself “Ybu may come and wish Miss Catherine welcome, like the other servants.” Cathy catching a glimpse of her friend in his concealment, flew to embrace him; she bestowed seven or eight kisses on his cheek within the second, and then stopped, and drawing back, burst into a laugh, exclaiming, “Why how very black and cross you look! and how—how funny and grim! But that’s because Fm used to Edgar and Isabella Linton. Well, Heathcliff^ have you forgotten me?” She had some reason to put the question, for shame and pride threw double gloom over his countenance, and kept him immovable. “Shake hands, Heathcliff/’ said Mr. Earnshaw condescendingly; “once in a way that is permitted.” “I shall not,” replied the boy finding his tongue at last; “I shall not stand to be laughed at. I shall not bear it!” And he would have broken from the circle, but Miss Cathy seized him again. “I did not mean to laugh at you,” she said, “I could not hinder myself: Heathcliff^ shake hands at least! What are you sulky for? It was only that you looked odd. If you wash your face and brush your hair, it will be all right: but you are so dirty!” -50- CHAPTER 7 She gazed concernedly at the dusky fingers she held in her own, and also at her dress; which she feared had gained no embellishment from its contact with his. “Abu neednY have touched me!” he answered, following her eye and snatching away his hand. “I shall be as dirty as I please: and I like to be dirty and I will be dirty” With that he dashed headforemost out of the room, amid the merriment of the master and mistress, and to the serious disturbance of Catherine; who could not comprehend how her remarks should have produced such an exhibition of bad temper. After playing lady’s maid to the new-comer, and putting my cakes in the oven, and making the house and kitchen cheerful with great fires, befitting Christmas-eve, I prepared to sit down and amuse myself by singing carols, all alone; regardless of Joseph’s affirmations that he considered the merry tunes I chose as next door to songs. He had retired to private prayer in his chamber, and Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw were engaging Miss/s attention by sundry gay trifles bought for her to present to the little Lintons, as an acknowledgment of their kindness. They had invited them to spend the morrow at Wuthering Heights, and the invitation had been accepted, on one condition: Mrs. Linton begged that her darlings might be kept carefully apart from that “naughty swearing boy\ Under these circumstances I remained solitary I smelt the rich scent of the heating spices; and admired the shining kitchen utensils, the polished clock, decked in holly the silver mugs ranged on a tray ready to be filled with mulled ale for supper; and above all, the speckless purity of my particular care一the scoured and well- swept floor. I gave due inward applause to every object, and then I remembered how old Earnshaw used to come in when all was tidied, and call me a cant lass, and slip a shilling into my hand as a Christmas-box; and from that I went on to think of his fondness for Heathcliff^ and his dread lest he should suffer neglect after death had removed him: and that naturally led me to consider the poor lad’s situation now; and from singing I changed my mind to -51- Wuthering Heights crying. It struck me soon, however, there would be more sense in endeavouring to repair some of his wrongs than shedding tears over them: I got up and walked into the court to seek him. He was not far; I found him smoothing the glossy coat of the new pony in the stable, and feeding the other beasts, according to custom. “Make haste, Heathcliff!” I said, uthe kitchen is so comfortable; and Joseph is up-stairs: make haste, and let me dress you smart before Miss Cathy comes out, and then you can sit together, with the whole hearth to yourselves, and have a long chatter till bedtime.” He proceeded with his task, and never turned his head towards me. “Come—are you coming?^^ I continued, “There’s a little cake for each of you, nearly enough; and you’ll need halfan-hour’s donning.^^ I waited five minutes, but getting no answer left him. Catherine supped with her brother and sister-in-law: Joseph and I joined at an unsociable meal, seasoned with reproofs on one side and sauciness on the other. His cake and cheese remained on the table all night for the fairies. He managed to continue work till nine o’clock,and then marched dumb and dour to his chamber. Cathy sat up late, having a world of things to order for the reception of her new friends: she came into the kitchen once to speak to her old one; but he was gone, and she only stayed to ask what was the matter with him, and then went back. In the morning he rose early; and, as it was a holiday; carried his ill-humour onto the moors; not re- appearing till the family were departed for church. Fasting and reflection seemed to have brought him to a better spirit. He hung about me for a while, and having screwed up his courage, exclaimed abruptly~~'‘Nelly make me decent,Fm going to be good”. “High time, Heathcliff/’ I said, “you have grieved Catherine: she’s sorry she ever came home, I daresay! It looks as if you envied her, because she is more thought of than you.” The notion of envying Catherine was incomprehensible to him, but the notion of grieving her he understood clearly enough. -52 - CHAPTER 7 “Did she say she was grieved?” he inquired, looking very serious. “She cried when I told her you were off again this morning.w “Wfell, I cried last night,M he returned, “and I had more reason to cry than she.” uYes: you had the reason of going to bed with a proud heart and an empty stomach,M said I. “Proud people breed sad sorrows for themselves. But, if you be ashamed of your touchiness, you must ask pardon, mind, when she comes in. Vou must go up and offer to kiss her, and say~~you know best what to say; only do it heartily and not as if you thought her converted into a stranger by her grand dress. And now, though I have dinner to get ready Uli steal time to arrange you so that Edgar Linton shall look quite a doll beside you: and that he does. Vou are younger, and yet, Fll be bound, you are taller and twice as broad across the shoulders; you could knock him down in a twinkling; don’t you feel that you could?” Heathcliff’s face brightened a moment; then it was overcast afresh, and he sighed. “But, Nelly if I knocked him down twenty times, that wouldn’t make him less handsome or me more so. I wish I had light hair and a fair skin, and was dressed and behaved as well, and had a chance of being as rich as he will be!” ‘And cried for mamma at every turn,” I added, “and trembled if a country lad heaved his fist against you, and sat at home all day for a shower of rain. Oh, Heathcliffi you are showing a poor spirit! Come to the glass, and I’ll let you see what you should wish. Do you mark those two lines between your eyes; and those thick brows, that, instead of rising arched, sink in the middle; and that couple of black fiends, so deeply buried, who never open their windows boldly; but lurk glinting under them, like deviFs spies? Wish and learn to smooth away the surly wrinkles, to raise your lids frankly; and change the fiends to confident, innocent angels, suspecting and doubting nothing, and always seeing friends where they are not sure of foes. Don’t get the expression of a vicious cur -53- Wuthering Heights that appears to know the kicks it gets are its desert, and yet hates all the world, as well as the kicker, for what it suffers.” “In other words, I must wish for Edgar Lintorfs great blue eyes and even forehead,w he replied. “I do—and that won’t help me to them.,, t6A good heart will help you to a bonny face, my lad,” I continued, “if you were a regular black; and a bad one will turn the bonniest into something worse than ugly And now that we’ve done washing, and combing, and sulking—tell me whether you don’t think yourself rather handsome? I’ll tell you, I do. Ybu’re fit for a prince in disguise. Who knows but your father was Emperor of China, and your mother an Indian queen, each of them able to buy up, with one week’s income, Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange together? And you were kidnapped by wicked sailors and brought to England. Were I in your place, I would frame high notions of my birth; and the thoughts of what I was should give me courage and dignity to support the oppressions of a little farmerr’ So I chattered on; and Heathcliff gradually lost his frown and began to look quite pleasant, when all at once our conversation was interrupted by a rumbling sound moving up the road and entering the court. He ran to the window and I to the door, just in time to behold the two Lintons descend from the family carriage, smothered in cloaks and furs, and the Earnshaws dismount from their horses: they often rode to church in winter. Catherine took a hand of each of the children, and brought them into the house and set them before the fire, which quickly put colour into their white faces. I urged my companion to hasten now and show his amiable humour, and he willingly obeyed; but ill luck would have it that, as he opened the door leading from the kitchen on one side, Hindley opened it on the other. They met, and the master, irritated at seeing him clean and cheerful, or, perhaps, eager to keep his promise to Mrs. Linton, shoved him back with a sudden thrust, and angrily bade Joseph “keep the fellow out of the room—send him into the -54 - CHAPTER 7 garret till dinner is over. He’ll be cramming his fingers in the tarts and stealing the fruit, if left alone with them a minute.” “Nay sir,” I could not avoid answering, “he’ll touch nothing, not he: and I suppose he must have his share of the dainties as well as we.” “He shall have his share of my hand, if I catch him downstairs till dark,” cried Hindleg “Begone, you vagabond! What! you are attempting the coxcomb, are you? Wait till I get hold of those elegant locks—see if I won’t pull them a bit longer!” “They are long enough already,M observed Master Linton, peeping from the doorway; “I wonder they don’t make his head ache. It’s like a colt’s mane over his eyes!” He ventured this remark without any intention to insult; but Heathcliff’s violent nature was not prepared to endure the appearance of impertinence from one whom he seemed to hate, even then, as a rival. He seized a tureen of hot apple sauce, the first thing that came under his gripe, and dashed it full against the speaker’s face and neck; who instantly commenced a lament that brought Isabella and Catherine hurrying to the place. Mr. Earnshaw snatched up the culprit directly and conveyed him to his chamber; where, doubtless, he administered a rough remedy to cool the fit of passion, for he reappeared red and breathless. I got the dishcloth, and rather spitefully scrubbed Edgar’s nose and mouth, affirming it served him right for meddling. His sister began weeping to go home, and Cathy stood by confounded, blushing for all. “Ybu should not have spoken to him!,, she expostulated with Master Linton. “He was in a bad temper, and now Ydu’ve spoilt your visit; and he’ll be flogged: I hate him to be flogged! I can’t eat my dinner. Why did you speak to him, Edgar?” “I didn’t,” sobbed the youth, escaping from my hands, and finishing the remainder of the purification with his cambric pocket-handkerchief “I promised mamma that I wouldn’t say one word to him, and I didn’t.” "'Well, don’t cry;” replied Catherine, contemptuously; “you’re -55- Wuthering Heights not killed. Don’t make more mischief; my brother is coming: be quiet! Hush, Isabella! Has anybody hurt you?J, “There, there, children—to your seats!” cried Hindley bustling in. “That brute of a lad has warmed me nicely Next time, Master Edgar, take the law into your own fists一it will give you an appetite!” The little party recovered its equanimity at sight of the fragrant feast. They were hungry after their ride, and easily consoled, since no real harm had befallen them. Mr. Earnshaw carved bountiful platefuls, and the mistress made them merry with lively talk. I waited behind her chair, and was pained to behold Catherine, with dry eyes and an indifferent air, commence cutting up the wing of a goose before her. ‘An unfeeling child,” I thought to myselfj “how lightly she dismisses her old playmate’s troubles. I could not have imagined her to be so selfish.” She lifted a mouthful to her lips: then she set it down again: her cheeks flushed, and the tears gushed over them. She slipped her fork to the floor, and hastily dived under the cloth to conceal her emotion. I did not call her unfeeling long; for I perceived she was in purgatory throughout the day and wearying to find an opportunity of getting by herselfj or paying a visit to Heathcliffj who had been locked up by the master: as I discovered, on endeavouring to introduce to him a private mess of victuals. In the evening we had a dance. Cathy begged that he might be liberated then, as Isabella Linton had no partner: her entreaties were vain, and I was appointed to supply the deficiency We got rid of all gloom in the excitement of the exercise, and our pleasure was increased by the arrival of the Gimmerton band, mustering fifteen strong: a trumpet, a trombone, clarionets, bassoons, French horns, and a bass viol, besides singers. They go the rounds of all the respectable houses, and receive contributions every Christmas, and we esteemed it a first-rate treat to hear them. After the usual carols had been sung, we set them to songs and glees. Mrs. Earnshaw loved the music, and so they gave us plenty Catherine loved it too: but she said it sounded sweetest at -56- CHAPTER 7 the top of the steps, and she went up in the dark: I followed. They shut the house door below, never noting our absence, it was so full of people. She made no stay at the stairs’-head,but mounted farther, to the garret where Heathcliff was confined, and called him. He stubbornly declined answering for a while: she persevered, and finally persuaded him to hold communion with her through the boards. I let the poor things converse unmolested, till I supposed the songs were going to cease, and the singers to get some refreshment: then I clambered up the ladder to warn her. Instead of finding her outside, I heard her voice within. The little monkey had crept by the skylight of one garret, along the roofj into the skylight of the other, and it was with the utmost difficulty I could coax her out again. When she did come, Heathcliff came with her, and she insisted that I should take him into the kitchen, as my fellow-servant had gone to a neighbour’s, to be removed from the sound of our “devil’s psalmody”,as it pleased him to call it. I told them I intended by no means to encourage their tricks: but as the prisoner had never broken his fast since yesterday’s dinner, I would wink at his cheating Mr. Hindley that once. He went down: I set him a stool by the fire, and offered him a quantity of good things: but he was sick and could eat little, and my attempts to entertain him were thrown away He leant his two elbows on his knees, and his chin on his hands, and remained wrapt in dumb meditation. On my inquiring the subject of his thoughts, he answered gravely—“I’m trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back. I don’t care how long I wait, if I can only do it at last. I hope he will not die before I do”! “For shame, Heathcliff!” said I. “It is for God to punish wicked people; we should learn to forgive.” “No, God won’t have the satisfaction that I shall,” he returned, “I only wish I knew the best way! Let me alone, and I’ll plan it out: while Fm thinking of that I don’t feel pain.” “But, Mr. Lockwood, I forget these tales cannot divert you. I’m annoyed how I should dream of chattering on at such a rate; -57- Wuthering Heights and your gruel cold, and you nodding for bed! I could have told Heathcliff’s history all that you need hear, in half a dozen words.” 木 木* 木 本 本 Thus interrupting herself the housekeeper rose, and proceeded to lay aside her sewing; but I felt incapable of moving from the hearth, and I was very far from nodding. “Sit still, Mrs. Dean,” I cried; “do sit still another half hour. %u’ve done just right to tell the story leisurely That is the method I like; and you must finish it in the same style. I am interested in every character you have mentioned, more or less.” “The clock is on the stroke of eleven, sir.” “No matter一I’m not accustomed to go to bed in the long hours. One or two is early enough for a person who lies till ten.” shouldn’t lie till ten. There’s the very prime of the morning gone long before that time. A person who has not done one-half his da/s work by ten o’clock,runs a chance of leaving the other half undone.” “Nevertheless, Mrs. Dean, resume your chair; because to- morrow I intend lengthening the night till afternoon. I prognosticate for myself an obstinate cold, at least.” “I hope not, sir. Well, you must allow me to leap over some three years; during that space Mrs. Earnshaw—” “No, no, Fll allow nothing of the sort! Are you acquainted with the mood of mind in which, if you were seated alone, and the cat licking its kitten on the rug before you, you would watch the operation so intently that puss’s neglect of one ear would put you seriously out of temper?” aA terribly lazy mood, I should say” “On the contrary a tiresomely active one. It is mine, at present; and, therefore, continue minutely I perceive that people in these regions acquire over people in towns the value that a spider in a dungeon does over a spider in a cottage, to their various occupants; and yet the deepened attraction is not entirely owing to the situation of the looker-on. They do live more in earnest, -58- CHAPTER 7 more in themselves, and less in surface change, and frivolous external things. I could fancy a love for life here almost possible; and I was a fixed unbeliever in any love of a year’s standing. One state resembles setting a hungry man down to a single dish, on which he may concentrate his entire appetite and do it justice; the other, introducing him to a table laid out by French cooks: he can perhaps extract as much enjoyment from the whole; but each part is a mere atom in his regard and remembrance.M “Oh! here we are the same as anywhere else, when you get to know us,” observed Mrs. Dean, somewhat puzzled at my speech. “Excuse me,” I responded, “you,my good friend, are a striking evidence against that assertion. Excepting a few provincialisms of slight consequence, you have no marks of the manners which I am habituated to consider as peculiar to your class. I am sure you have thought a great deal more than the generality of servants think. You have been compelled to cultivate your reflective faculties for want of occasions for frittering your life away in silly trifles.” Mrs. Dean laughed. “I certainly esteem myself a steady; reasonable kind of body;” she said, “not exactly from living among the hills and seeing one set of faces, and one series of actions, from year’s end to year’s end; but I have undergone sharp discipline, which has taught me wisdom; and then, I have read more than you would fancy; Mr. Lockwood. %u could not open a book in this library that I have not looked into, and got something out of also: unless it be that range of Greek and Latin, and that of French; and those I know one from another: it is as much as you can expect of a poor man’s daughter. However, if I am to follow my story in true gossip’s fashion, I had better go on; and instead of leaping three years, I will be content to pass to the next summer—the summer of 1778, that is nearly twenty-three years ago.” -5少 CHAPTER 8 On the morning of a fine June day my first bonny little nursling, and the last of the ancient Earnshaw stock, was born. We were busy with the hay in a far-away field, when the girl that usually brought our breakfasts came running an hour too soon across the meadow and up the lane, calling me as she ran. “Oh, such a grand bairn!” she panted out, “The finest lad that ever breathed! But the doctor says missis must go: he says she’s been in a consumption these many months. I heard him tell Mr. Hindley: and now she has nothing to keep her, and she’ll be dead before winter, ^ou must come home directly Vbu’re to nurse it, Nelly: to feed it with sugar and milk, and take care of it day and night. I wish I were you, because it will be all yours when there is no missis!” “But is she very I asked, flinging down my rake and tying my bonnet. “I guess she is; yet she looks bravely;” replied the girl, “and she talks as if she thought of living to see it grow a man. She’s out of her head for joy, it’s such a beauty! If I were her I’m certain I should not die: I should get better at the bare sight of it, in spite of Kenneth. I was fairly mad at him. Dame Archer brought the cherub down to master, in the house, and his face just began to light up, then the old croaker steps forward, and says he— “Earnshax^ it’s a blessing your wife has been spared to leave you this son. When she came, I felt convinced we shouldn’t keep her long; and now, I must tell you, the winter will probably finish her. Don’t take on, and fret about it too much: it can’t be helped. And besides, you should have known better than to choose such a rush of a lass”! -6o- CHAPTER 8 "And what did the master answer?” I inquired. “I think he swore: but I didn’t mind him, I was straining to see the bairn,” and she bc^gan again to describe it rapturously I, as zealous as herself^ hurried eagerly home to admire, on my part; though I was very sad for Hindley’s sake. He had room in his heart only for two idols—his wife and himself: he doted on both, and adored one, and I couldn’t conceive how he would bear the loss. When we got to Wuthering Heights, there he stood at the front door; and, as I passed in, I asked, “how was the baby?” “Nearly ready to run about, Nell!” he replied, putting on a cheerful smile. 'And the mistress?” I ventured to inquire; “the doctor says she’s—” “Damn the doctor!he interrupted, reddening, “Frances is quite right: she’ll be perfectly well by this time next week. Are you going up-stairs? will you tell her that Pll come, if she’ll promise not to talk. I left her because she would not hold her tongue; and she must—tell her Mr. Kenneth says she must be quiet.” I delivered this message to Mrs. Earnshaw; she seemed in flighty spirits, and replied merrily “I hardly spoke a word, Ellen, and there he has gone out twice, crying. Well, say I promise I won’t speak: but that does not bind me not to laugh at him!” Poor soul! Till within a week of her death that gay heart never failed her; and her husband persisted doggedly; nay, furiously; in affirming her health improved every day When Kenneth warned him that his medicines were useless at that stage of the malady and he needn’t put him to further expense by attending her, he retorted, “I know you need not—she’s well—she does not want any more attendance from you! She never was in a consumption. It was a fever; and it is gone: her pulse is as slow as mine nox^ and her cheek as cool.” He told his wife the same story; and she seemed to believe him; but one night, while leaning on his shoulder, in the act of -6l- Wuthering Heights saying she thought she should be able to get up to-morrow; a fit of coughing took her—a very slight one—he raised her in his arms; she put her two hands about his neck, her face changed, and she was dead. As the girl had anticipated, the child Hareton fell wholly into my hands. Mr. Earnshaw; provided he saw him healthy and never heard him cry; was contented, as far as regarded him. For himself, he grew desperate: his sorrow was of that kind that will not lament. He neither wept nor prayed; he cursed and defied: execrated God and man, and gave himself up to reckless dissipation. The servants could not bear his tyrannical and evil conduct long: Joseph and I were the only two that would stay I had not the heart to leave my charge; and besides, you knov^ I had been his foster-sister, and excused his behaviour more readily than a stranger would. Joseph remained to hector over tenants and labourers; and because it was his vocation to be where he had plenty of wickedness to reprove. The master’s bad ways and bad companions formed a pretty example for Catherine and HeathclifE His treatment of the latter was enough to make a fiend of a saint. And, truly it appeared as if the lad were possessed of something diabolical at that period. He delighted to witness Hindley degrading himself past redemption; and became daily more notable for savage sullenness and ferocity I could not half tell what an infernal house we had. The curate dropped calling, and nobody decent came near us, at last; unless Edgar Linton’s visits to Miss Cathy might be an exception. At fifteen she was the queen of the country-side; she had no peer; and she did turn out a haughty headstrong creature! I own I did not like her, after infancy was past; and I vexed her frequently by trying to bring down her arrogance: she never took an aversion to me, though. She had a wondrous constancy to old attachments: even Heathcliff kept his hold on her affections unalterably; and young Linton, with all his superiority; found it difficult to make an equally deep impression. He was my late master: that is his -62- CHAPTER 8 portrait over the fireplace. It used to hang on one side, and his wife’s on the other; but hers has been removed, or else you might see something of what she was. Can you make that out? Mrs. Dean raised the candle, and I discerned a soft-featured face, exceedingly resembling the young lady at the Heights, but more pensive and amiable in expression. It formed a sweet picture. The long light hair curled slightly on the temples; the eyes were large and serious; the figure almost too graceful. I did not marvel how Catherine Earnshaw could forget her first friend for such an individual. I marvelled much how he, with a mind to correspond with his person, could fancy my idea of Catherine Earnshaw 4A very agreeable portrait,M I observed to the house-keeper, “Is it like?" “Yes,” she answered, “but he looked better when he was animated; that is his everyday countenance: he wanted spirit in general.” Catherine had kept up her acquaintance with the Lintons since her five-weeks’ residence among them; and as she had no temptation to show her rough side in their company and had the sense to be ashamed of being rude where she experienced such invariable courtesy; she imposed unwittingly on the old lady and gentleman by her ingenious cordiality; gained the admiration of Isabella, and the heart and soul of her brother: acquisitions that flattered her from the first—for she was full of ambition—and led her to adopt a double character without exactly intending to deceive any one. In the place where she heard HeathclifF termed a “vulgar young ruffian” and “worse than a brute”,she took care not to act like him; but at home she had small inclination to practise politeness that would only be laughed at, and restrain an unruly nature when it would bring her neither credit nor praise. Mr. Edgar seldom mustered courage to visit Wuthering Heights openly He had a terror of Earnshaw’s reputation, and shrunk from encountering him; and yet he was always received with our -63- Wuthering Heights best attempts at civility: the master himself avoided offending him, knowing why he came; and if he could not be gracious, kept out of the way I rather think his appearance there was distasteful to Catherine; she was not artful, never played the coquette, and had evidently an objection to her two friends meeting at all; for when Heathcliff expressed contempt of Linton in his presence, she could not half coincide, as she did in his absence; and when Linton evinced disgust and antipathy to Heathcliffi she dared not treat his sentiments with indifference, as if depreciation of her playmate were of scarcely any consequence to her. Fve had many a laugh at her perplexities and untold troubles, which she vainly strove to hide from my mockery That sounds ill-natured: but she was so proud it became really impossible to pity her distresses, till she should be chastened into more humility She did bring herself finally to confess, and to confide in me: there was not a soul else that she might fashion into an adviser. Mr. Hindley had gone from home one afternoon, and Heathcliff presumed to give himself a holiday on the strength of it. He had reached the age of sixteen then, I think, and without having bad features, or being deficient in intellect, he contrived to convey an impression of inward and outward repulsiveness that his present aspect retains no traces o£ In the first place, he had by that time lost the benefit of his early education: continual hard work, begun soon and concluded late, had extinguished any curiosity he once possessed in pursuit of knowledge, and any love for books or learning. His childhood’s sense of superiority; instilled into him by the favours of old Mr. Earnshaw; was faded away He struggled long to keep up an equality with Catherine in her studies, and yielded with poignant though silent regret: but he yielded completely; and there was no prevailing on him to take a step in the way of moving upward, when he found he must, necessarily; sink beneath his former level. Then personal appearance sympathised with mental deterioration: he acquired a slouching gait and ignoble look; his naturally reserved disposition -6个 CHAPTER 8 was exaggerated into an almost idiotic excess of unsociable moroseness; and he took a grim pleasure, apparentlj; in exciting the aversion rather than the esteem of his few acquaintances. Catherine and he were constant companions still at his seasons of respite from labour; but he had ceased to express his fondness for her in words, and recoiled with angry suspicion from her girlish caresses, as if conscious there could be no gratification in lavishing such marks of affection on him. On the before-named occasion he came into the house to announce his intention of doing nothing, while I was assisting Miss Cathy to arrange her dress: she had not reckoned on his taking it into his head to be idle; and imagining she would have the whole place to herselfj she managed, by some means, to inform Mr. Edgar of her brother’s absence, and was then preparing to receive him. “Cathy; are you busy this afternoon?” asked Heathcliffi ‘Are you going anywhere?” “No, it is raining/5 she answered. “Why have you that silk frock on, then?” he said, “Nobody coming here, I hope?” “Not that I know of/’ stammered Miss, “but you should be in the field no\^ Heathcliff It is an hour past dinnertime: I thought you were gone.” “Hindley does not often free us from his accursed presence/ observed the boy; “I’ll not work any more to-day: I’ll stay with you.” “Oh,but Joseph will she suggested, “you’d better go!” ‘Joseph is loading lime on the further side of Penistone Crags; it will take him till dark, and he’ll never know” So, saying, he lounged to the fire, and sat down. Catherine reflected an instant, with knitted brows—she found it needful to smooth the way for an intrusion. “Isabella and Edgar Linton talked of calling this afternoon,M she said, at the conclusion of a minute’s silence, it rains, I hardly expect them; but they may come, and if they do, you run the risk of being scolded for no good.” -65- Wuthering Heights “Order Ellen to say you are engaged, Cathy” he persisted, “don’t turn me out for those pitiful, silly friends of yours! I’m on the point, sometimes, of complaining that they—but I’ll not—” “That they what?” cried Catherine, gazing at him with a troubled countenance. “Oh, Nelly!” she added petulantly; jerking her head away from my hands, “Vdu’ve combed my hair quite out of curl! That’s enough; let me alone. What are you on the point of complaining about, Heathcliff?” “Nothing~only look at the almanack on that wall;” he pointed to a framed sheet hanging near the window; and continued, “The crosses are for the evenings you have spent with the Lintons, the dots for those spent with me. Do you see? Fve marked every day” uYes—very foolish: as if I took notice!” replied Catherine, in a peevish tone. ‘And where is the sense of that?” “lb show that I do take notice,” said Heathcliff ‘And should I always be sitting with you?” she demanded, growing more irritated. “What good do I get? What do you talk about? You might be dumb, or a baby for anything you say to amuse me, or for anything you do, either!” Uybu never told me before that I talked too little, or that you disliked my company Cathy!,, exclaimed Heathcliff, in much agitation. “It’s no company at all, when people know nothing and say nothing,n she muttered. Her companion rose up, but he hadn’t time to express his feelings further, for a horse’s feet were heard on the flags, and having knocked gently young Linton entered, his face brilliant with delight at the unexpected summon she had received. Doubtless Catherine marked the difference between her friends, as one came in and the other went out. The contrast resembled what you see in exchanging a bleak, hilly coal country for a beautiful fertile valley; and his voice and greeting were as opposite as his aspect. He had a sweet, low manner of speaking, and pronounced his words as you do: that’s less gruff than we talk here, and softer. -66- CHAPTER 8 “I’m not come too soon, am I?” he said, casting a look at me: I had begun to wipe the plate, and tidy some drawers at the far end in the dresser. “No,” answered Catherine. “What are you doing there, Nelly?,, “My work, Miss,” I replied. (Mr. Hindley had given me directions to make a third party in any private visits Linton chose to pay) She stepped behind me and whispered crossly “THake yourself and your dusters off; when company are in the house, servants don’t commence scouring and cleaning in the room where they are!” “It’s a good opportunity now that master is away” I answered aloud, “he hates me to be fidgeting over these things in his presence. Fm sure Mr. Edgar will excuse me.” “I hate you to be fidgeting in my presence,exclaimed the young lady imperiously not allowing her guest time to speak: she had failed to recover her equanimity since the little dispute with HeathclifE “I’m sorry for it, Miss Catherine,n was my response; and I proceeded assiduously with my occupation. She, supposing Edgar could not see her, snatched the cloth from my hand, and pinched me, with a prolonged wrench, very spitefully on the arm. I’ve said I did not love her, and rather relished mortifying her vanity now and then: besides, she hurt me extremely; so I started up from my knees, and screamed out, “Oh, Miss, that’s a nasty trick! You have no right to nip me, and Pm not going to bear it.” “I didn’t touch you, you lying creature!” cried she, her fingers tingling to repeat the act, and her ears red with rage. She never had power to conceal her passion, it always set her whole complexion in a blaze. “What’s that, then?” I retorted, showing a decided purple witness to refute her. She stamped her foot, wavered a moment, and then, irresistibly -67- Wuthering Heights impelled by the naughty spirit within her, slapped me on the cheek: a stinging blow that filled both eyes with water. “Catherine, love! Catherine!” interposed Linton, greatly shocked at the double fault of falsehood and violence which his idol had committed. “Leave the room, Ellen!” she repeated, trembling all over. Little Hareton, who followed me everywhere, and was sitting near me on the floor, at seeing my tears commenced crying himselfj and sobbed out complaints against “wicked aunt Cath/’, which drew her fury on to his unlucky head: she seized his shoulders, and shook him till the poor child waxed livid, and Edgar thoughtlessly laid hold of her hands to deliver him. In an instant one was wrung free, and the astonished young man felt it applied over his own ear in a way that could not be mistaken for jest. He drew back in consternation. I lifted Hareton in my arms, and walked off to the kitchen with him, leaving the door of communication open, for I was curious to watch how they would settle their disagreement. The insulted visitor moved to the spot where he had laid his hat, pale and with a quivering lip. “That’s right!” I said to myself “Take warning and begone! It’s a kindness to let you have a glimpse of her genuine disposition.” uWhere are you going?” demanded Catherine, advancing to the door. He swerved aside, and attempted to pass. “Abu must not go!” she exclaimed, energetically “I must and shall!” he replied in a subdued voice. “No,” she persisted, grasping the handle, “not yet, Edgar Linton: sit down; you shall not leave me in that temper. I should be miserable all night, and I won’t be miserable for you!” “Can I stay after you have struck me?” asked Linton. Catherine was mute. “Y)u’ve made me afraid and ashamed of you,” he continued, “I’ll not come here again!” Her eyes began to glisten and her lids to twinkle. -68- CHAPTER 8 'And you told a deliberate untruth!” he said. “I didn’t!” she cried, recovering her speech, “I did nothing deliberately Well, go, if you please―get away! And now Fll cry— Uli cry myself sick!” She dropped down on her knees by a chair, and set to weeping in serious earnest. Edgar persevered in his resolution as far as the court; there he lingered. I resolved to encourage him. “Miss is dreadfully wayward, sir,” I called out, 'As bad as any marred child: Ybu’t better be riding home, or else she will be sick, only to grieve us.” The soft thing looked askance through the window: he possessed the power to depart as much as a cat possesses the power to leave a mouse half killed, or a bird half eaten. Ah, I thought, there will be no saving him: he’s doomed, and flies to his fate! And so it was: he turned abruptly hastened into the house again, shut the door behind him; and when I went in a while after to inform them that Earnshaw had come home rabid drunk, ready to pull the whole place about our ears (his ordinary frame of mind in that condition), I saw the quarrel had merely effected a closer intimacy—had broken the outworks of youthful timidity; and enabled them to forsake the disguise of friendship, and confess themselves lovers. Intelligence of Mr. Hindle/s arrival drove Linton speedily to his horse, and Catherine to her chamber. I went to hide little Hareton, and to take the shot out of the master’s fowling-piece, which he was fond of playing with in his insane excitement, to the hazard of the lives of any who provoked, or even attracted his notice too much; and I had hit upon the plan of removing it, that he might do less mischief if he did go the length of firing the gun. 命 CHAPTER 9 He entered, vociferating oaths dreadful to hear; and caught me in the act of stowing his son away in the kitchen cupboard. Hareton was impressed with a wholesome terror of encountering either his wild beast’s fondness or his madman’s rage; for in one he ran a chance of being squeezed and kissed to death, and in the other of being flung into the fire, or dashed against the wall; and the poor thing remained perfectly quiet wherever I chose to put him. “There, Fve found it out at last!” cried Hindleg pulling me back by the skin of my neck, like a dog. “By heaven and hell, Yz)u’ve sworn between you to murder that child! I know how it is, now, that he is always out of my way But, with the help of Satan, I shall make you swallow the carving-knife, Nelly! ydu needn’t laugh; for Fve just crammed Kenneth, head-downmost, in the Black-horse marsh; and two is the same as one—and I want to kill some of you: I shall have no rest till I do!,^ “But I don’t like the carving-knife, Mr. Hindley;” I answered, “it has been cutting red herrings. Ft rather be shot, if you please.M “Ybu’t rather be damned!” he said, “and so you shall. No law in England can hinder a man from keeping his house decent, and mine’s abominable! Open your mouth.” He held the knife in his hand, and pushed its point between my teeth: but, for my part, I was never much afraid of his vagaries. I spat out, and affirmed it tasted detestably—I would not take it on any account. “Oh!” said he, releasing me, “I see that hideous little villain is not Hareton: I beg your pardon, Nell. If it be, he deserves flaying alive for not running to welcome me, and for screaming as if I were a goblin. Unnatural cub, come hither! Pll teach thee to impose on a good-hearted, deluded father. Now; don’t you think the lad -70- CHAPTER 9 would be handsomer cropped? It makes a dog fiercer, and I love something fierce—get me a scissors—something fierce and trim! Besides, it’s infernal affectation—devilish conceit it is, to cherish our ears—we’re asses enough without them. Hush, child, hush! Well then, it is my darling! wisht, dry thy eyes一there’s a joy; kiss me. What! it won’t? Kiss me, Hareton! Damn thee, kiss me! By God, as if I would rear such a monster! As sure asFm living, Fll break the brat’s neck.” Poor Hareton was squalling and kicking in his father’s arms with all his might, and redoubled his yells when he carried him up- stairs and lifted him over the banister. I cried out that he would frighten the child into fits, and ran to rescue him. As I reached them, Hindley leant forward on the rails to listen to a noise below; almost forgetting what he had in his hands. “Who is that?” he asked, hearing some one approaching the stairs’-foot. I leant forward also, for the purpose of signing to Heathcliff^ whose step I recognised, not to come further; and, at the instant when my eye quitted Hareton, he gave a sudden spring, delivered himself from the careless grasp that held him, and fell. There was scarcely time to experience a thrill of horror before we saw that the little wretch was safe. Heathcliff arrived underneath just at the critical moment; by a natural impulse he arrested his descent, and setting him on his feet, looked up to discover the author of the accident. A miser who has parted with a lucky lottery ticket for five shillings, and finds next day he has lost in the bargain five thousand pounds, could not show a blanker countenance than he did on beholding the figure of Mr. Earnshaw above. It expressed, plainer than words could do, the intensest anguish at having made himself the instrument of thwarting his own revenge. Had it been dark, I daresay he would have tried to remedy the mistake by smashing Hareton’s skull on the steps; but, we witnessed his salvation; and I was presently below with my precious charge pressed to my heart. Hindley descended more leisurely; sobered and abashed. -71- Wuthering Heights “It is your fault, Ellen,” he said, “you should have kept him out of sight: you should have taken him from me! Is he injured anywhere?” “Injured!” I cried angrily “if he is not killed, he’ll be an idiot! Oh! I wonder his mother does not rise from her grave to see how you use him. ybu’re worse than a heathen—treating your own flesh and blood in that manner!M He attempted to touch the child, who, on finding himself with me, sobbed off his terror directly At the first finger his father laid on him, however, he shrieked again louder than before, and struggled as if he would go into convulsions. “Abu shall not meddle with him!” I continued, “He hates you— they all hate you—that’s the truth! A happy family you have; and a pretty state you’re come to!” “I shall come to a prettier, yet, Nelly;” laughed the misguided man, recovering his hardness. ‘At present, convey yourself and him away And hark you, Heathcliff! clear you too quite from my reach and hearing. I wouldn’t murder you to-night; unless, perhaps, I set the house on fire: but that’s as my fancy goes.” While saying this he took a pint bottle of brandy from the dresser, and poured some into a tumbler. “Nay; don’t!” I entreated, “Mr. Hindleg do take warning. Have mercy on this unfortunate boy, if you care nothing for yourself!” 'Any one will do better for him than I shall,” he answered. “Have mercy on your own soul!” I said, endeavouring to snatch the glass from his hand. “Not I! On the contrary I shall have great pleasure in sending it to perdition to punish its Maker,M exclaimed the blasphemer. “Here’s to its hearty damnation!” He drank the spirits and impatiently bade us go; terminating his command with a sequel of horrid imprecations too bad to repeat or remember. “It’s a pity he cannot kill himself with drink,” observed Heathcliffi muttering an echo of curses back when the door was shut. “He’s doing his very utmost; but his constitution defies him. -72- CHAPTER 9 Mr. Kenneth says he would wager his mare that he’ll outlive any man on this side Gimmerton, and go to the grave a hoary sinner; unless some happy chance out of the common course befall him.” I went into the kitchen, and sat down to lull my little lamb to sleep. Heathcliff^ as I thought, walked through to the barn. It turned out afterwards that he only got as far as the other side the settle, when he flung himself on a bench by the wall, removed from the fire and remained silent. I was rocking Hareton on my knee, and humming a song that began,— It was far in the night, and the bairnies grat, The mither beneath the mools heard that, when Miss Cathy who had listened to the hubbub from her room, put her head in, and whispered,一‘Are you alone, Nelly?,, wVes, Miss,” I replied. She entered and approached the hearth. I, supposing she was going to say something, looked up. The expression of her face seemed disturbed and anxious. Her lips were half asunder, as if she meant to speak, and she drew a breath; but it escaped in a sigh instead of a sentence. I resumed my song; not having forgotten her recent behaviour. “Where’s Heathcliff?” she said, interrupting me. ‘About his work in the stable,w was my answer. He did not contradict me; perhaps he had fallen into a doze. There followed another long pause, during which I perceived a drop or two trickle from Catherine’s cheek to the flags. Is she sorry for her shameful conduct?一I asked myself That will be a novelty: but she may come to the point—as she will—I sha’n’t help her! No, she felt small trouble regarding any subject, save her own concerns. “Oh, dear!” she cried at last, “I’m very unhappy!” ‘A pity” observed I. “Abu’re hard to please; so many friends and so few cares, and can’t make yourself content!” -73- Wuthering Heights “Nelly, will you keep a secret for me?” she pursued, kneeling down by me, and lifting her winsome eyes to my face with that sort of look which turns off bad temper, even when one has all the right in the world to indulge it. “Is it worth keeping?” I inquired, less sulkily uYes, and it worries me, and I must let it out! I want to know what I should do. To-day; Edgar Linton has asked me to marry him, and Pve given him an answer. No\^ before I tell you whether it was a consent or denial, you tell me which it ought to have been.” “Really Miss Catherine, how can I know?” I replied, “To be sure, considering the exhibition you performed in his presence this afternoon, I might say it would be wise to refuse him: since he asked you after that, he must either be hopelessly stupid or a venturesome fool.” “If you talk so, I won’t tell you any more,” she returned, peevishly rising to her feet. “I accepted him, Nelly Be quick, and say whether I was wrong!w “Ydu accepted him! Then what good is it discussing the matter? %u have pledged your word, and cannot retract.” “But say whether I should have done so~ o!” she exclaimed in an irritated tone; chafing her hands together, and frowning. “There are many things to be considered before that question can be answered properly,w I said, sententiously “First and foremost, do you love Mr. Edgar?” “Who can help it? Of course I do,” she answered. Then I put her through the following catechism: for a girl of twenty-two it was not injudicious. “Why do you love him, Miss Cathy?” “Nonsense, I do—that’s sufficient.,^ “By no means; you must say why?” “Wfell, because he is handsome, and pleasant to be with.” “Bad!” was my commentary 'And because he is young and cheerful.” -74- CHAPTER 9 "Bad, Still.,, ‘And because he loves me.” 4

eauty! I should scarcely have known you: you look like a lady now Isabella Linton is not to be compared with her, is she, Frances?” “Isabella has not her natural advantages,w replied his wife, “but she must mind and not grow wild again here. Ellen, help Miss Catherine off with her things—Stay dear, you will disarrange your curls—let me untie your hat.” I removed the habit, and there shone forth beneath a grand plaid silk frock, white trousers, and burnished shoes; and, while her eyes sparkled joyfully when the dogs came bounding up to welcome her, she dared hardly touch them lest they should fawn upon her splendid garments. She kissed me gently: I was all flour making the Christmas cake, and it would not have done to give me a hug; and then she looked round for Heathcliff Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw watched anxiously their meeting; thinking it would enable them to judge, in some measure, what grounds they had for hoping to succeed in separating the two friends. Heathcliff was hard to discover, at first. If he were careless, -49- Wuthering Heights and uncared for, before Catherine’s absence, he had been ten times more so since. Nobody but I even did him the kindness to call him a dirty boy and bid him wash himself once a week; and children of his age seldom have a natural pleasure in soap and water. Therefore, not to mention his clothes, which had seen three months, service in mire and dust, and his thick uncombed hair, the surface of his face and hands was dismally beclouded. He might well skulk behind the settle, on beholding such a bright, graceful damsel enter the house, instead of a rough-headed counterpart of himself^ as he expected. “Is Heathcliff not here?” she demanded, pulling off her gloves, and displaying fingers wonderfully whitened with doing nothing and staying indoors. “Heathcliff^ you may come forward/5 cried Mr. Hindley enjoying his discomfiture, and gratified to see what a forbidding young blackguard he would be compelled to present himself “Ybu may come and wish Miss Catherine welcome, like the other servants.” Cathy catching a glimpse of her friend in his concealment, flew to embrace him; she bestowed seven or eight kisses on his cheek within the second, and then stopped, and drawing back, burst into a laugh, exclaiming, “Why how very black and cross you look! and how—how funny and grim! But that’s because Fm used to Edgar and Isabella Linton. Well, Heathcliff^ have you forgotten me?” She had some reason to put the question, for shame and pride threw double gloom over his countenance, and kept him immovable. “Shake hands, Heathcliff/’ said Mr. Earnshaw condescendingly; “once in a way that is permitted.” “I shall not,” replied the boy finding his tongue at last; “I shall not stand to be laughed at. I shall not bear it!” And he would have broken from the circle, but Miss Cathy seized him again. “I did not mean to laugh at you,” she said, “I could not hinder myself: Heathcliff^ shake hands at least! What are you sulky for? It was only that you looked odd. If you wash your face and brush your hair, it will be all right: but you are so dirty!” -50- CHAPTER 7 She gazed concernedly at the dusky fingers she held in her own, and also at her dress; which she feared had gained no embellishment from its contact with his. “Abu neednY have touched me!” he answered, following her eye and snatching away his hand. “I shall be as dirty as I please: and I like to be dirty and I will be dirty” With that he dashed headforemost out of the room, amid the merriment of the master and mistress, and to the serious disturbance of Catherine; who could not comprehend how her remarks should have produced such an exhibition of bad temper. After playing lady’s maid to the new-comer, and putting my cakes in the oven, and making the house and kitchen cheerful with great fires, befitting Christmas-eve, I prepared to sit down and amuse myself by singing carols, all alone; regardless of Joseph’s affirmations that he considered the merry tunes I chose as next door to songs. He had retired to private prayer in his chamber, and Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw were engaging Miss/s attention by sundry gay trifles bought for her to present to the little Lintons, as an acknowledgment of their kindness. They had invited them to spend the morrow at Wuthering Heights, and the invitation had been accepted, on one condition: Mrs. Linton begged that her darlings might be kept carefully apart from that “naughty swearing boy\ Under these circumstances I remained solitary I smelt the rich scent of the heating spices; and admired the shining kitchen utensils, the polished clock, decked in holly the silver mugs ranged on a tray ready to be filled with mulled ale for supper; and above all, the speckless purity of my particular care一the scoured and well- swept floor. I gave due inward applause to every object, and then I remembered how old Earnshaw used to come in when all was tidied, and call me a cant lass, and slip a shilling into my hand as a Christmas-box; and from that I went on to think of his fondness for Heathcliff^ and his dread lest he should suffer neglect after death had removed him: and that naturally led me to consider the poor lad’s situation now; and from singing I changed my mind to -51- Wuthering Heights crying. It struck me soon, however, there would be more sense in endeavouring to repair some of his wrongs than shedding tears over them: I got up and walked into the court to seek him. He was not far; I found him smoothing the glossy coat of the new pony in the stable, and feeding the other beasts, according to custom. “Make haste, Heathcliff!” I said, uthe kitchen is so comfortable; and Joseph is up-stairs: make haste, and let me dress you smart before Miss Cathy comes out, and then you can sit together, with the whole hearth to yourselves, and have a long chatter till bedtime.” He proceeded with his task, and never turned his head towards me. “Come—are you coming?^^ I continued, “There’s a little cake for each of you, nearly enough; and you’ll need halfan-hour’s donning.^^ I waited five minutes, but getting no answer left him. Catherine supped with her brother and sister-in-law: Joseph and I joined at an unsociable meal, seasoned with reproofs on one side and sauciness on the other. His cake and cheese remained on the table all night for the fairies. He managed to continue work till nine o’clock,and then marched dumb and dour to his chamber. Cathy sat up late, having a world of things to order for the reception of her new friends: she came into the kitchen once to speak to her old one; but he was gone, and she only stayed to ask what was the matter with him, and then went back. In the morning he rose early; and, as it was a holiday; carried his ill-humour onto the moors; not re- appearing till the family were departed for church. Fasting and reflection seemed to have brought him to a better spirit. He hung about me for a while, and having screwed up his courage, exclaimed abruptly~~'‘Nelly make me decent,Fm going to be good”. “High time, Heathcliff/’ I said, “you have grieved Catherine: she’s sorry she ever came home, I daresay! It looks as if you envied her, because she is more thought of than you.” The notion of envying Catherine was incomprehensible to him, but the notion of grieving her he understood clearly enough. -52 - CHAPTER 7 “Did she say she was grieved?” he inquired, looking very serious. “She cried when I told her you were off again this morning.w “Wfell, I cried last night,M he returned, “and I had more reason to cry than she.” uYes: you had the reason of going to bed with a proud heart and an empty stomach,M said I. “Proud people breed sad sorrows for themselves. But, if you be ashamed of your touchiness, you must ask pardon, mind, when she comes in. Vou must go up and offer to kiss her, and say~~you know best what to say; only do it heartily and not as if you thought her converted into a stranger by her grand dress. And now, though I have dinner to get ready Uli steal time to arrange you so that Edgar Linton shall look quite a doll beside you: and that he does. Vou are younger, and yet, Fll be bound, you are taller and twice as broad across the shoulders; you could knock him down in a twinkling; don’t you feel that you could?” Heathcliff’s face brightened a moment; then it was overcast afresh, and he sighed. “But, Nelly if I knocked him down twenty times, that wouldn’t make him less handsome or me more so. I wish I had light hair and a fair skin, and was dressed and behaved as well, and had a chance of being as rich as he will be!” ‘And cried for mamma at every turn,” I added, “and trembled if a country lad heaved his fist against you, and sat at home all day for a shower of rain. Oh, Heathcliffi you are showing a poor spirit! Come to the glass, and I’ll let you see what you should wish. Do you mark those two lines between your eyes; and those thick brows, that, instead of rising arched, sink in the middle; and that couple of black fiends, so deeply buried, who never open their windows boldly; but lurk glinting under them, like deviFs spies? Wish and learn to smooth away the surly wrinkles, to raise your lids frankly; and change the fiends to confident, innocent angels, suspecting and doubting nothing, and always seeing friends where they are not sure of foes. Don’t get the expression of a vicious cur -53- Wuthering Heights that appears to know the kicks it gets are its desert, and yet hates all the world, as well as the kicker, for what it suffers.” “In other words, I must wish for Edgar Lintorfs great blue eyes and even forehead,w he replied. “I do—and that won’t help me to them.,, t6A good heart will help you to a bonny face, my lad,” I continued, “if you were a regular black; and a bad one will turn the bonniest into something worse than ugly And now that we’ve done washing, and combing, and sulking—tell me whether you don’t think yourself rather handsome? I’ll tell you, I do. Ybu’re fit for a prince in disguise. Who knows but your father was Emperor of China, and your mother an Indian queen, each of them able to buy up, with one week’s income, Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange together? And you were kidnapped by wicked sailors and brought to England. Were I in your place, I would frame high notions of my birth; and the thoughts of what I was should give me courage and dignity to support the oppressions of a little farmerr’ So I chattered on; and Heathcliff gradually lost his frown and began to look quite pleasant, when all at once our conversation was interrupted by a rumbling sound moving up the road and entering the court. He ran to the window and I to the door, just in time to behold the two Lintons descend from the family carriage, smothered in cloaks and furs, and the Earnshaws dismount from their horses: they often rode to church in winter. Catherine took a hand of each of the children, and brought them into the house and set them before the fire, which quickly put colour into their white faces. I urged my companion to hasten now and show his amiable humour, and he willingly obeyed; but ill luck would have it that, as he opened the door leading from the kitchen on one side, Hindley opened it on the other. They met, and the master, irritated at seeing him clean and cheerful, or, perhaps, eager to keep his promise to Mrs. Linton, shoved him back with a sudden thrust, and angrily bade Joseph “keep the fellow out of the room—send him into the -54 - CHAPTER 7 garret till dinner is over. He’ll be cramming his fingers in the tarts and stealing the fruit, if left alone with them a minute.” “Nay sir,” I could not avoid answering, “he’ll touch nothing, not he: and I suppose he must have his share of the dainties as well as we.” “He shall have his share of my hand, if I catch him downstairs till dark,” cried Hindleg “Begone, you vagabond! What! you are attempting the coxcomb, are you? Wait till I get hold of those elegant locks—see if I won’t pull them a bit longer!” “They are long enough already,M observed Master Linton, peeping from the doorway; “I wonder they don’t make his head ache. It’s like a colt’s mane over his eyes!” He ventured this remark without any intention to insult; but Heathcliff’s violent nature was not prepared to endure the appearance of impertinence from one whom he seemed to hate, even then, as a rival. He seized a tureen of hot apple sauce, the first thing that came under his gripe, and dashed it full against the speaker’s face and neck; who instantly commenced a lament that brought Isabella and Catherine hurrying to the place. Mr. Earnshaw snatched up the culprit directly and conveyed him to his chamber; where, doubtless, he administered a rough remedy to cool the fit of passion, for he reappeared red and breathless. I got the dishcloth, and rather spitefully scrubbed Edgar’s nose and mouth, affirming it served him right for meddling. His sister began weeping to go home, and Cathy stood by confounded, blushing for all. “Ybu should not have spoken to him!,, she expostulated with Master Linton. “He was in a bad temper, and now Ydu’ve spoilt your visit; and he’ll be flogged: I hate him to be flogged! I can’t eat my dinner. Why did you speak to him, Edgar?” “I didn’t,” sobbed the youth, escaping from my hands, and finishing the remainder of the purification with his cambric pocket-handkerchief “I promised mamma that I wouldn’t say one word to him, and I didn’t.” "'Well, don’t cry;” replied Catherine, contemptuously; “you’re -55- Wuthering Heights not killed. Don’t make more mischief; my brother is coming: be quiet! Hush, Isabella! Has anybody hurt you?J, “There, there, children—to your seats!” cried Hindley bustling in. “That brute of a lad has warmed me nicely Next time, Master Edgar, take the law into your own fists一it will give you an appetite!” The little party recovered its equanimity at sight of the fragrant feast. They were hungry after their ride, and easily consoled, since no real harm had befallen them. Mr. Earnshaw carved bountiful platefuls, and the mistress made them merry with lively talk. I waited behind her chair, and was pained to behold Catherine, with dry eyes and an indifferent air, commence cutting up the wing of a goose before her. ‘An unfeeling child,” I thought to myselfj “how lightly she dismisses her old playmate’s troubles. I could not have imagined her to be so selfish.” She lifted a mouthful to her lips: then she set it down again: her cheeks flushed, and the tears gushed over them. She slipped her fork to the floor, and hastily dived under the cloth to conceal her emotion. I did not call her unfeeling long; for I perceived she was in purgatory throughout the day and wearying to find an opportunity of getting by herselfj or paying a visit to Heathcliffj who had been locked up by the master: as I discovered, on endeavouring to introduce to him a private mess of victuals. In the evening we had a dance. Cathy begged that he might be liberated then, as Isabella Linton had no partner: her entreaties were vain, and I was appointed to supply the deficiency We got rid of all gloom in the excitement of the exercise, and our pleasure was increased by the arrival of the Gimmerton band, mustering fifteen strong: a trumpet, a trombone, clarionets, bassoons, French horns, and a bass viol, besides singers. They go the rounds of all the respectable houses, and receive contributions every Christmas, and we esteemed it a first-rate treat to hear them. After the usual carols had been sung, we set them to songs and glees. Mrs. Earnshaw loved the music, and so they gave us plenty Catherine loved it too: but she said it sounded sweetest at -56- CHAPTER 7 the top of the steps, and she went up in the dark: I followed. They shut the house door below, never noting our absence, it was so full of people. She made no stay at the stairs’-head,but mounted farther, to the garret where Heathcliff was confined, and called him. He stubbornly declined answering for a while: she persevered, and finally persuaded him to hold communion with her through the boards. I let the poor things converse unmolested, till I supposed the songs were going to cease, and the singers to get some refreshment: then I clambered up the ladder to warn her. Instead of finding her outside, I heard her voice within. The little monkey had crept by the skylight of one garret, along the roofj into the skylight of the other, and it was with the utmost difficulty I could coax her out again. When she did come, Heathcliff came with her, and she insisted that I should take him into the kitchen, as my fellow-servant had gone to a neighbour’s, to be removed from the sound of our “devil’s psalmody”,as it pleased him to call it. I told them I intended by no means to encourage their tricks: but as the prisoner had never broken his fast since yesterday’s dinner, I would wink at his cheating Mr. Hindley that once. He went down: I set him a stool by the fire, and offered him a quantity of good things: but he was sick and could eat little, and my attempts to entertain him were thrown away He leant his two elbows on his knees, and his chin on his hands, and remained wrapt in dumb meditation. On my inquiring the subject of his thoughts, he answered gravely—“I’m trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back. I don’t care how long I wait, if I can only do it at last. I hope he will not die before I do”! “For shame, Heathcliff!” said I. “It is for God to punish wicked people; we should learn to forgive.” “No, God won’t have the satisfaction that I shall,” he returned, “I only wish I knew the best way! Let me alone, and I’ll plan it out: while Fm thinking of that I don’t feel pain.” “But, Mr. Lockwood, I forget these tales cannot divert you. I’m annoyed how I should dream of chattering on at such a rate; -57- Wuthering Heights and your gruel cold, and you nodding for bed! I could have told Heathcliff’s history all that you need hear, in half a dozen words.” 木 木* 木 本 本 Thus interrupting herself the housekeeper rose, and proceeded to lay aside her sewing; but I felt incapable of moving from the hearth, and I was very far from nodding. “Sit still, Mrs. Dean,” I cried; “do sit still another half hour. %u’ve done just right to tell the story leisurely That is the method I like; and you must finish it in the same style. I am interested in every character you have mentioned, more or less.” “The clock is on the stroke of eleven, sir.” “No matter一I’m not accustomed to go to bed in the long hours. One or two is early enough for a person who lies till ten.” shouldn’t lie till ten. There’s the very prime of the morning gone long before that time. A person who has not done one-half his da/s work by ten o’clock,runs a chance of leaving the other half undone.” “Nevertheless, Mrs. Dean, resume your chair; because to- morrow I intend lengthening the night till afternoon. I prognosticate for myself an obstinate cold, at least.” “I hope not, sir. Well, you must allow me to leap over some three years; during that space Mrs. Earnshaw—” “No, no, Fll allow nothing of the sort! Are you acquainted with the mood of mind in which, if you were seated alone, and the cat licking its kitten on the rug before you, you would watch the operation so intently that puss’s neglect of one ear would put you seriously out of temper?” aA terribly lazy mood, I should say” “On the contrary a tiresomely active one. It is mine, at present; and, therefore, continue minutely I perceive that people in these regions acquire over people in towns the value that a spider in a dungeon does over a spider in a cottage, to their various occupants; and yet the deepened attraction is not entirely owing to the situation of the looker-on. They do live more in earnest, -58- CHAPTER 7 more in themselves, and less in surface change, and frivolous external things. I could fancy a love for life here almost possible; and I was a fixed unbeliever in any love of a year’s standing. One state resembles setting a hungry man down to a single dish, on which he may concentrate his entire appetite and do it justice; the other, introducing him to a table laid out by French cooks: he can perhaps extract as much enjoyment from the whole; but each part is a mere atom in his regard and remembrance.M “Oh! here we are the same as anywhere else, when you get to know us,” observed Mrs. Dean, somewhat puzzled at my speech. “Excuse me,” I responded, “you,my good friend, are a striking evidence against that assertion. Excepting a few provincialisms of slight consequence, you have no marks of the manners which I am habituated to consider as peculiar to your class. I am sure you have thought a great deal more than the generality of servants think. You have been compelled to cultivate your reflective faculties for want of occasions for frittering your life away in silly trifles.” Mrs. Dean laughed. “I certainly esteem myself a steady; reasonable kind of body;” she said, “not exactly from living among the hills and seeing one set of faces, and one series of actions, from year’s end to year’s end; but I have undergone sharp discipline, which has taught me wisdom; and then, I have read more than you would fancy; Mr. Lockwood. %u could not open a book in this library that I have not looked into, and got something out of also: unless it be that range of Greek and Latin, and that of French; and those I know one from another: it is as much as you can expect of a poor man’s daughter. However, if I am to follow my story in true gossip’s fashion, I had better go on; and instead of leaping three years, I will be content to pass to the next summer—the summer of 1778, that is nearly twenty-three years ago.” -5少 CHAPTER 8 On the morning of a fine June day my first bonny little nursling, and the last of the ancient Earnshaw stock, was born. We were busy with the hay in a far-away field, when the girl that usually brought our breakfasts came running an hour too soon across the meadow and up the lane, calling me as she ran. “Oh, such a grand bairn!” she panted out, “The finest lad that ever breathed! But the doctor says missis must go: he says she’s been in a consumption these many months. I heard him tell Mr. Hindley: and now she has nothing to keep her, and she’ll be dead before winter, ^ou must come home directly Vbu’re to nurse it, Nelly: to feed it with sugar and milk, and take care of it day and night. I wish I were you, because it will be all yours when there is no missis!” “But is she very I asked, flinging down my rake and tying my bonnet. “I guess she is; yet she looks bravely;” replied the girl, “and she talks as if she thought of living to see it grow a man. She’s out of her head for joy, it’s such a beauty! If I were her I’m certain I should not die: I should get better at the bare sight of it, in spite of Kenneth. I was fairly mad at him. Dame Archer brought the cherub down to master, in the house, and his face just began to light up, then the old croaker steps forward, and says he— “Earnshax^ it’s a blessing your wife has been spared to leave you this son. When she came, I felt convinced we shouldn’t keep her long; and now, I must tell you, the winter will probably finish her. Don’t take on, and fret about it too much: it can’t be helped. And besides, you should have known better than to choose such a rush of a lass”! -6o- CHAPTER 8 "And what did the master answer?” I inquired. “I think he swore: but I didn’t mind him, I was straining to see the bairn,” and she bc^gan again to describe it rapturously I, as zealous as herself^ hurried eagerly home to admire, on my part; though I was very sad for Hindley’s sake. He had room in his heart only for two idols—his wife and himself: he doted on both, and adored one, and I couldn’t conceive how he would bear the loss. When we got to Wuthering Heights, there he stood at the front door; and, as I passed in, I asked, “how was the baby?” “Nearly ready to run about, Nell!” he replied, putting on a cheerful smile. 'And the mistress?” I ventured to inquire; “the doctor says she’s—” “Damn the doctor!he interrupted, reddening, “Frances is quite right: she’ll be perfectly well by this time next week. Are you going up-stairs? will you tell her that Pll come, if she’ll promise not to talk. I left her because she would not hold her tongue; and she must—tell her Mr. Kenneth says she must be quiet.” I delivered this message to Mrs. Earnshaw; she seemed in flighty spirits, and replied merrily “I hardly spoke a word, Ellen, and there he has gone out twice, crying. Well, say I promise I won’t speak: but that does not bind me not to laugh at him!” Poor soul! Till within a week of her death that gay heart never failed her; and her husband persisted doggedly; nay, furiously; in affirming her health improved every day When Kenneth warned him that his medicines were useless at that stage of the malady and he needn’t put him to further expense by attending her, he retorted, “I know you need not—she’s well—she does not want any more attendance from you! She never was in a consumption. It was a fever; and it is gone: her pulse is as slow as mine nox^ and her cheek as cool.” He told his wife the same story; and she seemed to believe him; but one night, while leaning on his shoulder, in the act of -6l- Wuthering Heights saying she thought she should be able to get up to-morrow; a fit of coughing took her—a very slight one—he raised her in his arms; she put her two hands about his neck, her face changed, and she was dead. As the girl had anticipated, the child Hareton fell wholly into my hands. Mr. Earnshaw; provided he saw him healthy and never heard him cry; was contented, as far as regarded him. For himself, he grew desperate: his sorrow was of that kind that will not lament. He neither wept nor prayed; he cursed and defied: execrated God and man, and gave himself up to reckless dissipation. The servants could not bear his tyrannical and evil conduct long: Joseph and I were the only two that would stay I had not the heart to leave my charge; and besides, you knov^ I had been his foster-sister, and excused his behaviour more readily than a stranger would. Joseph remained to hector over tenants and labourers; and because it was his vocation to be where he had plenty of wickedness to reprove. The master’s bad ways and bad companions formed a pretty example for Catherine and HeathclifE His treatment of the latter was enough to make a fiend of a saint. And, truly it appeared as if the lad were possessed of something diabolical at that period. He delighted to witness Hindley degrading himself past redemption; and became daily more notable for savage sullenness and ferocity I could not half tell what an infernal house we had. The curate dropped calling, and nobody decent came near us, at last; unless Edgar Linton’s visits to Miss Cathy might be an exception. At fifteen she was the queen of the country-side; she had no peer; and she did turn out a haughty headstrong creature! I own I did not like her, after infancy was past; and I vexed her frequently by trying to bring down her arrogance: she never took an aversion to me, though. She had a wondrous constancy to old attachments: even Heathcliff kept his hold on her affections unalterably; and young Linton, with all his superiority; found it difficult to make an equally deep impression. He was my late master: that is his -62- CHAPTER 8 portrait over the fireplace. It used to hang on one side, and his wife’s on the other; but hers has been removed, or else you might see something of what she was. Can you make that out? Mrs. Dean raised the candle, and I discerned a soft-featured face, exceedingly resembling the young lady at the Heights, but more pensive and amiable in expression. It formed a sweet picture. The long light hair curled slightly on the temples; the eyes were large and serious; the figure almost too graceful. I did not marvel how Catherine Earnshaw could forget her first friend for such an individual. I marvelled much how he, with a mind to correspond with his person, could fancy my idea of Catherine Earnshaw 4A very agreeable portrait,M I observed to the house-keeper, “Is it like?" “Yes,” she answered, “but he looked better when he was animated; that is his everyday countenance: he wanted spirit in general.” Catherine had kept up her acquaintance with the Lintons since her five-weeks’ residence among them; and as she had no temptation to show her rough side in their company and had the sense to be ashamed of being rude where she experienced such invariable courtesy; she imposed unwittingly on the old lady and gentleman by her ingenious cordiality; gained the admiration of Isabella, and the heart and soul of her brother: acquisitions that flattered her from the first—for she was full of ambition—and led her to adopt a double character without exactly intending to deceive any one. In the place where she heard HeathclifF termed a “vulgar young ruffian” and “worse than a brute”,she took care not to act like him; but at home she had small inclination to practise politeness that would only be laughed at, and restrain an unruly nature when it would bring her neither credit nor praise. Mr. Edgar seldom mustered courage to visit Wuthering Heights openly He had a terror of Earnshaw’s reputation, and shrunk from encountering him; and yet he was always received with our -63- Wuthering Heights best attempts at civility: the master himself avoided offending him, knowing why he came; and if he could not be gracious, kept out of the way I rather think his appearance there was distasteful to Catherine; she was not artful, never played the coquette, and had evidently an objection to her two friends meeting at all; for when Heathcliff expressed contempt of Linton in his presence, she could not half coincide, as she did in his absence; and when Linton evinced disgust and antipathy to Heathcliffi she dared not treat his sentiments with indifference, as if depreciation of her playmate were of scarcely any consequence to her. Fve had many a laugh at her perplexities and untold troubles, which she vainly strove to hide from my mockery That sounds ill-natured: but she was so proud it became really impossible to pity her distresses, till she should be chastened into more humility She did bring herself finally to confess, and to confide in me: there was not a soul else that she might fashion into an adviser. Mr. Hindley had gone from home one afternoon, and Heathcliff presumed to give himself a holiday on the strength of it. He had reached the age of sixteen then, I think, and without having bad features, or being deficient in intellect, he contrived to convey an impression of inward and outward repulsiveness that his present aspect retains no traces o£ In the first place, he had by that time lost the benefit of his early education: continual hard work, begun soon and concluded late, had extinguished any curiosity he once possessed in pursuit of knowledge, and any love for books or learning. His childhood’s sense of superiority; instilled into him by the favours of old Mr. Earnshaw; was faded away He struggled long to keep up an equality with Catherine in her studies, and yielded with poignant though silent regret: but he yielded completely; and there was no prevailing on him to take a step in the way of moving upward, when he found he must, necessarily; sink beneath his former level. Then personal appearance sympathised with mental deterioration: he acquired a slouching gait and ignoble look; his naturally reserved disposition -6个 CHAPTER 8 was exaggerated into an almost idiotic excess of unsociable moroseness; and he took a grim pleasure, apparentlj; in exciting the aversion rather than the esteem of his few acquaintances. Catherine and he were constant companions still at his seasons of respite from labour; but he had ceased to express his fondness for her in words, and recoiled with angry suspicion from her girlish caresses, as if conscious there could be no gratification in lavishing such marks of affection on him. On the before-named occasion he came into the house to announce his intention of doing nothing, while I was assisting Miss Cathy to arrange her dress: she had not reckoned on his taking it into his head to be idle; and imagining she would have the whole place to herselfj she managed, by some means, to inform Mr. Edgar of her brother’s absence, and was then preparing to receive him. “Cathy; are you busy this afternoon?” asked Heathcliffi ‘Are you going anywhere?” “No, it is raining/5 she answered. “Why have you that silk frock on, then?” he said, “Nobody coming here, I hope?” “Not that I know of/’ stammered Miss, “but you should be in the field no\^ Heathcliff It is an hour past dinnertime: I thought you were gone.” “Hindley does not often free us from his accursed presence/ observed the boy; “I’ll not work any more to-day: I’ll stay with you.” “Oh,but Joseph will she suggested, “you’d better go!” ‘Joseph is loading lime on the further side of Penistone Crags; it will take him till dark, and he’ll never know” So, saying, he lounged to the fire, and sat down. Catherine reflected an instant, with knitted brows—she found it needful to smooth the way for an intrusion. “Isabella and Edgar Linton talked of calling this afternoon,M she said, at the conclusion of a minute’s silence, it rains, I hardly expect them; but they may come, and if they do, you run the risk of being scolded for no good.” -65- Wuthering Heights “Order Ellen to say you are engaged, Cathy” he persisted, “don’t turn me out for those pitiful, silly friends of yours! I’m on the point, sometimes, of complaining that they—but I’ll not—” “That they what?” cried Catherine, gazing at him with a troubled countenance. “Oh, Nelly!” she added petulantly; jerking her head away from my hands, “Vdu’ve combed my hair quite out of curl! That’s enough; let me alone. What are you on the point of complaining about, Heathcliff?” “Nothing~only look at the almanack on that wall;” he pointed to a framed sheet hanging near the window; and continued, “The crosses are for the evenings you have spent with the Lintons, the dots for those spent with me. Do you see? Fve marked every day” uYes—very foolish: as if I took notice!” replied Catherine, in a peevish tone. ‘And where is the sense of that?” “lb show that I do take notice,” said Heathcliff ‘And should I always be sitting with you?” she demanded, growing more irritated. “What good do I get? What do you talk about? You might be dumb, or a baby for anything you say to amuse me, or for anything you do, either!” Uybu never told me before that I talked too little, or that you disliked my company Cathy!,, exclaimed Heathcliff, in much agitation. “It’s no company at all, when people know nothing and say nothing,n she muttered. Her companion rose up, but he hadn’t time to express his feelings further, for a horse’s feet were heard on the flags, and having knocked gently young Linton entered, his face brilliant with delight at the unexpected summon she had received. Doubtless Catherine marked the difference between her friends, as one came in and the other went out. The contrast resembled what you see in exchanging a bleak, hilly coal country for a beautiful fertile valley; and his voice and greeting were as opposite as his aspect. He had a sweet, low manner of speaking, and pronounced his words as you do: that’s less gruff than we talk here, and softer. -66- CHAPTER 8 “I’m not come too soon, am I?” he said, casting a look at me: I had begun to wipe the plate, and tidy some drawers at the far end in the dresser. “No,” answered Catherine. “What are you doing there, Nelly?,, “My work, Miss,” I replied. (Mr. Hindley had given me directions to make a third party in any private visits Linton chose to pay) She stepped behind me and whispered crossly “THake yourself and your dusters off; when company are in the house, servants don’t commence scouring and cleaning in the room where they are!” “It’s a good opportunity now that master is away” I answered aloud, “he hates me to be fidgeting over these things in his presence. Fm sure Mr. Edgar will excuse me.” “I hate you to be fidgeting in my presence,exclaimed the young lady imperiously not allowing her guest time to speak: she had failed to recover her equanimity since the little dispute with HeathclifE “I’m sorry for it, Miss Catherine,n was my response; and I proceeded assiduously with my occupation. She, supposing Edgar could not see her, snatched the cloth from my hand, and pinched me, with a prolonged wrench, very spitefully on the arm. I’ve said I did not love her, and rather relished mortifying her vanity now and then: besides, she hurt me extremely; so I started up from my knees, and screamed out, “Oh, Miss, that’s a nasty trick! You have no right to nip me, and Pm not going to bear it.” “I didn’t touch you, you lying creature!” cried she, her fingers tingling to repeat the act, and her ears red with rage. She never had power to conceal her passion, it always set her whole complexion in a blaze. “What’s that, then?” I retorted, showing a decided purple witness to refute her. She stamped her foot, wavered a moment, and then, irresistibly -67- Wuthering Heights impelled by the naughty spirit within her, slapped me on the cheek: a stinging blow that filled both eyes with water. “Catherine, love! Catherine!” interposed Linton, greatly shocked at the double fault of falsehood and violence which his idol had committed. “Leave the room, Ellen!” she repeated, trembling all over. Little Hareton, who followed me everywhere, and was sitting near me on the floor, at seeing my tears commenced crying himselfj and sobbed out complaints against “wicked aunt Cath/’, which drew her fury on to his unlucky head: she seized his shoulders, and shook him till the poor child waxed livid, and Edgar thoughtlessly laid hold of her hands to deliver him. In an instant one was wrung free, and the astonished young man felt it applied over his own ear in a way that could not be mistaken for jest. He drew back in consternation. I lifted Hareton in my arms, and walked off to the kitchen with him, leaving the door of communication open, for I was curious to watch how they would settle their disagreement. The insulted visitor moved to the spot where he had laid his hat, pale and with a quivering lip. “That’s right!” I said to myself “Take warning and begone! It’s a kindness to let you have a glimpse of her genuine disposition.” uWhere are you going?” demanded Catherine, advancing to the door. He swerved aside, and attempted to pass. “Abu must not go!” she exclaimed, energetically “I must and shall!” he replied in a subdued voice. “No,” she persisted, grasping the handle, “not yet, Edgar Linton: sit down; you shall not leave me in that temper. I should be miserable all night, and I won’t be miserable for you!” “Can I stay after you have struck me?” asked Linton. Catherine was mute. “Y)u’ve made me afraid and ashamed of you,” he continued, “I’ll not come here again!” Her eyes began to glisten and her lids to twinkle. -68- CHAPTER 8 'And you told a deliberate untruth!” he said. “I didn’t!” she cried, recovering her speech, “I did nothing deliberately Well, go, if you please―get away! And now Fll cry— Uli cry myself sick!” She dropped down on her knees by a chair, and set to weeping in serious earnest. Edgar persevered in his resolution as far as the court; there he lingered. I resolved to encourage him. “Miss is dreadfully wayward, sir,” I called out, 'As bad as any marred child: Ybu’t better be riding home, or else she will be sick, only to grieve us.” The soft thing looked askance through the window: he possessed the power to depart as much as a cat possesses the power to leave a mouse half killed, or a bird half eaten. Ah, I thought, there will be no saving him: he’s doomed, and flies to his fate! And so it was: he turned abruptly hastened into the house again, shut the door behind him; and when I went in a while after to inform them that Earnshaw had come home rabid drunk, ready to pull the whole place about our ears (his ordinary frame of mind in that condition), I saw the quarrel had merely effected a closer intimacy—had broken the outworks of youthful timidity; and enabled them to forsake the disguise of friendship, and confess themselves lovers. Intelligence of Mr. Hindle/s arrival drove Linton speedily to his horse, and Catherine to her chamber. I went to hide little Hareton, and to take the shot out of the master’s fowling-piece, which he was fond of playing with in his insane excitement, to the hazard of the lives of any who provoked, or even attracted his notice too much; and I had hit upon the plan of removing it, that he might do less mischief if he did go the length of firing the gun. 命 CHAPTER 9 He entered, vociferating oaths dreadful to hear; and caught me in the act of stowing his son away in the kitchen cupboard. Hareton was impressed with a wholesome terror of encountering either his wild beast’s fondness or his madman’s rage; for in one he ran a chance of being squeezed and kissed to death, and in the other of being flung into the fire, or dashed against the wall; and the poor thing remained perfectly quiet wherever I chose to put him. “There, Fve found it out at last!” cried Hindleg pulling me back by the skin of my neck, like a dog. “By heaven and hell, Yz)u’ve sworn between you to murder that child! I know how it is, now, that he is always out of my way But, with the help of Satan, I shall make you swallow the carving-knife, Nelly! ydu needn’t laugh; for Fve just crammed Kenneth, head-downmost, in the Black-horse marsh; and two is the same as one—and I want to kill some of you: I shall have no rest till I do!,^ “But I don’t like the carving-knife, Mr. Hindley;” I answered, “it has been cutting red herrings. Ft rather be shot, if you please.M “Ybu’t rather be damned!” he said, “and so you shall. No law in England can hinder a man from keeping his house decent, and mine’s abominable! Open your mouth.” He held the knife in his hand, and pushed its point between my teeth: but, for my part, I was never much afraid of his vagaries. I spat out, and affirmed it tasted detestably—I would not take it on any account. “Oh!” said he, releasing me, “I see that hideous little villain is not Hareton: I beg your pardon, Nell. If it be, he deserves flaying alive for not running to welcome me, and for screaming as if I were a goblin. Unnatural cub, come hither! Pll teach thee to impose on a good-hearted, deluded father. Now; don’t you think the lad -70- CHAPTER 9 would be handsomer cropped? It makes a dog fiercer, and I love something fierce—get me a scissors—something fierce and trim! Besides, it’s infernal affectation—devilish conceit it is, to cherish our ears—we’re asses enough without them. Hush, child, hush! Well then, it is my darling! wisht, dry thy eyes一there’s a joy; kiss me. What! it won’t? Kiss me, Hareton! Damn thee, kiss me! By God, as if I would rear such a monster! As sure asFm living, Fll break the brat’s neck.” Poor Hareton was squalling and kicking in his father’s arms with all his might, and redoubled his yells when he carried him up- stairs and lifted him over the banister. I cried out that he would frighten the child into fits, and ran to rescue him. As I reached them, Hindley leant forward on the rails to listen to a noise below; almost forgetting what he had in his hands. “Who is that?” he asked, hearing some one approaching the stairs’-foot. I leant forward also, for the purpose of signing to Heathcliff^ whose step I recognised, not to come further; and, at the instant when my eye quitted Hareton, he gave a sudden spring, delivered himself from the careless grasp that held him, and fell. There was scarcely time to experience a thrill of horror before we saw that the little wretch was safe. Heathcliff arrived underneath just at the critical moment; by a natural impulse he arrested his descent, and setting him on his feet, looked up to discover the author of the accident. A miser who has parted with a lucky lottery ticket for five shillings, and finds next day he has lost in the bargain five thousand pounds, could not show a blanker countenance than he did on beholding the figure of Mr. Earnshaw above. It expressed, plainer than words could do, the intensest anguish at having made himself the instrument of thwarting his own revenge. Had it been dark, I daresay he would have tried to remedy the mistake by smashing Hareton’s skull on the steps; but, we witnessed his salvation; and I was presently below with my precious charge pressed to my heart. Hindley descended more leisurely; sobered and abashed. -71- Wuthering Heights “It is your fault, Ellen,” he said, “you should have kept him out of sight: you should have taken him from me! Is he injured anywhere?” “Injured!” I cried angrily “if he is not killed, he’ll be an idiot! Oh! I wonder his mother does not rise from her grave to see how you use him. ybu’re worse than a heathen—treating your own flesh and blood in that manner!M He attempted to touch the child, who, on finding himself with me, sobbed off his terror directly At the first finger his father laid on him, however, he shrieked again louder than before, and struggled as if he would go into convulsions. “Abu shall not meddle with him!” I continued, “He hates you— they all hate you—that’s the truth! A happy family you have; and a pretty state you’re come to!” “I shall come to a prettier, yet, Nelly;” laughed the misguided man, recovering his hardness. ‘At present, convey yourself and him away And hark you, Heathcliff! clear you too quite from my reach and hearing. I wouldn’t murder you to-night; unless, perhaps, I set the house on fire: but that’s as my fancy goes.” While saying this he took a pint bottle of brandy from the dresser, and poured some into a tumbler. “Nay; don’t!” I entreated, “Mr. Hindleg do take warning. Have mercy on this unfortunate boy, if you care nothing for yourself!” 'Any one will do better for him than I shall,” he answered. “Have mercy on your own soul!” I said, endeavouring to snatch the glass from his hand. “Not I! On the contrary I shall have great pleasure in sending it to perdition to punish its Maker,M exclaimed the blasphemer. “Here’s to its hearty damnation!” He drank the spirits and impatiently bade us go; terminating his command with a sequel of horrid imprecations too bad to repeat or remember. “It’s a pity he cannot kill himself with drink,” observed Heathcliffi muttering an echo of curses back when the door was shut. “He’s doing his very utmost; but his constitution defies him. -72- CHAPTER 9 Mr. Kenneth says he would wager his mare that he’ll outlive any man on this side Gimmerton, and go to the grave a hoary sinner; unless some happy chance out of the common course befall him.” I went into the kitchen, and sat down to lull my little lamb to sleep. Heathcliff^ as I thought, walked through to the barn. It turned out afterwards that he only got as far as the other side the settle, when he flung himself on a bench by the wall, removed from the fire and remained silent. I was rocking Hareton on my knee, and humming a song that began,— It was far in the night, and the bairnies grat, The mither beneath the mools heard that, when Miss Cathy who had listened to the hubbub from her room, put her head in, and whispered,一‘Are you alone, Nelly?,, wVes, Miss,” I replied. She entered and approached the hearth. I, supposing she was going to say something, looked up. The expression of her face seemed disturbed and anxious. Her lips were half asunder, as if she meant to speak, and she drew a breath; but it escaped in a sigh instead of a sentence. I resumed my song; not having forgotten her recent behaviour. “Where’s Heathcliff?” she said, interrupting me. ‘About his work in the stable,w was my answer. He did not contradict me; perhaps he had fallen into a doze. There followed another long pause, during which I perceived a drop or two trickle from Catherine’s cheek to the flags. Is she sorry for her shameful conduct?一I asked myself That will be a novelty: but she may come to the point—as she will—I sha’n’t help her! No, she felt small trouble regarding any subject, save her own concerns. “Oh, dear!” she cried at last, “I’m very unhappy!” ‘A pity” observed I. “Abu’re hard to please; so many friends and so few cares, and can’t make yourself content!” -73- Wuthering Heights “Nelly, will you keep a secret for me?” she pursued, kneeling down by me, and lifting her winsome eyes to my face with that sort of look which turns off bad temper, even when one has all the right in the world to indulge it. “Is it worth keeping?” I inquired, less sulkily uYes, and it worries me, and I must let it out! I want to know what I should do. To-day; Edgar Linton has asked me to marry him, and Pve given him an answer. No\^ before I tell you whether it was a consent or denial, you tell me which it ought to have been.” “Really Miss Catherine, how can I know?” I replied, “To be sure, considering the exhibition you performed in his presence this afternoon, I might say it would be wise to refuse him: since he asked you after that, he must either be hopelessly stupid or a venturesome fool.” “If you talk so, I won’t tell you any more,” she returned, peevishly rising to her feet. “I accepted him, Nelly Be quick, and say whether I was wrong!w “Ydu accepted him! Then what good is it discussing the matter? %u have pledged your word, and cannot retract.” “But say whether I should have done so~ o!” she exclaimed in an irritated tone; chafing her hands together, and frowning. “There are many things to be considered before that question can be answered properly,w I said, sententiously “First and foremost, do you love Mr. Edgar?” “Who can help it? Of course I do,” she answered. Then I put her through the following catechism: for a girl of twenty-two it was not injudicious. “Why do you love him, Miss Cathy?” “Nonsense, I do—that’s sufficient.,^ “By no means; you must say why?” “Wfell, because he is handsome, and pleasant to be with.” “Bad!” was my commentary 'And because he is young and cheerful.” -74- CHAPTER 9 "Bad, Still.,, ‘And because he loves me.” 4

黄金的技术分析

准则,将系统运行状态分为健康、临界和风险 状态。健康状态是指系统能够正常供电(无元件过负荷,电压和频率均在允许范围内),且满 足N_1准则;临界状态是指系统能够正常供电,但不满足N—1准则;风险状态是指系统 无法正常供电,可能需要削减负荷。基于该状态划分,定义3个状态指标:健康状态概率、 临界状态概率和风险状态概率。 需要说明的是,状态类指标可以根据不同的需求,采用不同状态划分方法,例如包括正 常、警戒、紧急、极端紧急、恢复状态的5状态划分等。本书采用的3状态划分的优点是,它 与经典的5状态划分一样,考虑了确定性的N-1准则,有利于被调度部门和工程界所接 受,同时比5状态划分更简洁清晰。 (2) 程度类指标 为了量化系统可靠性,具体描述线路潮流、母线电压等运行安全约束的满足情况及可能 导致的切负荷后果,定义3个程度指标:裕度指标、越限指标和切负荷指标。如果系统处于 健康状态或临界状态,则进一步通过裕度指标反映系统和元件安全运行的概率和裕度。如 果系统处于风险状态,则进一步通过越限指标反映线路潮流和母线电压越限的可能性和程 度;并通过切负荷指标反映负荷损失的可能性和期望值。 (3) 层次类指标 根据所关心的区域和目标不同,定义4个层次指标:系统指标、区域指标、负荷点指标 和元件指标。 13.3电力系统运行可靠性指标体系 411 (4)时限类指标 根据所关注的时间框架不同,定义短期指标与长期指标。短期指标的时间框架一般为 分钟或小时级;长期指标包括日指标、月指标、年指标等。 具体指标如表13.3.2所示,指标的计算公式如下。 表13.3.2运行可靠性指标体系 指 标 系统层 区域层 负荷点 元件层 状态类指标 健康状态概率 V V 临界状态概率 V V 风险状态概率 V V 程度类 指标 裕度 指标 潮流安全概率 V V V 潮流安全裕度 V V V 电压安全概率 V V V 电压上限安全裕度 V V V 电压下限安全裕度 V V V 潮流和电压安全概率 V V 越限 指标 潮流过载概率 V V V 潮流过载期望值 V V V 电压越限概率 V V V 电压越上限期望值 V 7 V 电压越下限期望值 V 7 V 潮流或电压越限概率 V V 切负荷 指标 潮流过载导致切负荷的概率 V V V V 潮流过载导致切负荷的期望值 V V V V 电压越限导致切负荷的概率 V V V 电压越限导致切负荷的期望值 V V V 切负荷概率 V 7 V 电力不足期望值 V V 电量不足期望值 V V V 严重程度指标 V V V 供电可用率 V V V 注:基于不同的预测时间z进行指标计算.即可得到相应的时限类指标(短期指标与长期指标)。 13.3.1运行可靠性状态类指标 (1) 健康状态概率 PHS(probability of healthy state): PHS= Sh ⑴ (13-1) Sk^DH 其中为系统状态s,在z时刻的概率;为处于健康状态的系统状态集合。 (2) 临界状态概率 PMS(probability of marginal state): PMS= 2 pst 为系统(区域、负荷点)在系统状态下的切负荷量,MW。 (36)系统(区域、负荷点)电量不足期望值 EENS(expected energy not supplied) (MW ? h): (13-35) Psk (r) X CSk (r)dr (37) 系统(区域、负荷点)严重程度指标SKseverity index)(系统分): SI = X 60 total 其中,L,<>ul为系统(区域、负荷点)的总负荷,MW。 (38) 系统(区域、负荷点)供电可用率SACservice availability): SA=1-^NS 需要说明的是,基于不同的预测时间步长《进行指标计算,即可得到相应的时限类指标 (短期指标与长期指标)。 EENS = (13-36) (13-37) (13-38) total 13.4电力系统元件的运行可靠性模型 电力系统运行中,重要发电机的停运会导致系统频率严重下降以及其他发电机组的跳 闸,频率严重失控时甚至导致系统频率崩溃;重要输变电设备的停运会引起系统潮流转移, 416 第13章电力系统运行可靠性 从而诱发大面积停电事故。因此,基于设备历史运行情况及其在未来短时间内的运行条件, 预测设备及电网的短期可靠性水平,对于指导调度员做出正确的控制决策从而降低大停电 风险、提高电力系统的运行可靠性具有重要作用。 在电力系统规划中,常采用恒定的设备故障率来计算系统中长期的可靠性水平,因为这 个长期统计平均值是设备长期运行情况的反映,如 图13.4.1虚线所示。然而恒定的平均故障率无法 描述历史运行条件和未来运行条件对设备停运风 险和系统运行可靠性的影响。例如连锁故障,按照 常规的元件可靠性模型,连锁故障的发生概率是基 于统计平均值的单重故障概率的乘积,数值非常 小,应该是百年不遇的事故。然而近年来这类故障 时常发生,造成理论与实际的严重脱离。原因在于 元件的可靠性建模出了问题,元件的停运概率应该 随着系统运行条件的变化而改变,如图13. 4. 1实线 所示。 图13.4.1可靠性模型参数(虚线是 平均值) 元件的运行可靠性模型综合考虑了运行条件和研究的时间尺度对元件停运概率的影 响。根据元件不同停运模式的机理,可建立相应的停运模型,如保护动作致停运模型、偶然 失效模型和老化失效模型等。应根据运行可靠性评估的应用场景选用合适的模型。若各停 运模型反映的停运事件相互独立,那么可以根据式(13-39)所示的可靠性逻辑串联关系对 它们进行组合使用: Ptoui = 1 - II(1 - P>> (13-39) 其中,为元件总的停运概率;P,为第i种停运模式下元件的停运概率,例如保护动作致 停运概率、偶然失效概率、老化失效概率等;《为考虑的停运模式的个数。本节主要介绍元 件的保护动作致停运模型和偶然失效模型,老化失效模型可参阅文献[7]。 13. 4.1保护动作致停运模型 1.线路过负荷保护动作模型 过负荷跳闸所引起的元件相继断开是一类可造成大面积停电的连锁故障。输电线路、 变压器等电力设备都装设有过负荷保护装置,然而保护装置的触发值的误差使得保护动作 切除设备存在不确定性。 过负荷继电保护系统主要由保护电流互感器和继电保护装置构成。一方面,保护电流 互感器的电流测量值存在误差,误差范围由该电流互感器的准确级决定;另一方面,继电保 护装置的触发值也存在误差,国标《继电器及装置基本试验方法(GB/T 7261—2000)》给出 了继电器装置极限误差的试验方法,实际产品的极限误差在±6%左右。设整个保护系统存 在的触发电流值L误差为±ei,并服从均值为'_,标准差为a,,范围为[Zse.od-e,), Ul+e,)]的截尾正态分布,其密度函数为 Jset 茫[LetO(l —Si),Jsetod +£l)] Iset) * 1 「 ( ^set IsetO )~] t r T z -l \ t z i | ---- exp------- I, e L-lSetO(l — ei),I?eto(l+ei)」 I Off! 72^ L 2ffI 」 (13-40) 13.4电力系统元件的运行可靠性模型 417 a =(I)

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仓博棋牌游戏

准则,将系统运行状态分为健康、临界和风险 状态。健康状态是指系统能够正常供电(无元件过负荷,电压和频率均在允许范围内),且满 足N_1准则;临界状态是指系统能够正常供电,但不满足N—1准则;风险状态是指系统 无法正常供电,可能需要削减负荷。基于该状态划分,定义3个状态指标:健康状态概率、 临界状态概率和风险状态概率。 需要说明的是,状态类指标可以根据不同的需求,采用不同状态划分方法,例如包括正 常、警戒、紧急、极端紧急、恢复状态的5状态划分等。本书采用的3状态划分的优点是,它 与经典的5状态划分一样,考虑了确定性的N-1准则,有利于被调度部门和工程界所接 受,同时比5状态划分更简洁清晰。 (2) 程度类指标 为了量化系统可靠性,具体描述线路潮流、母线电压等运行安全约束的满足情况及可能 导致的切负荷后果,定义3个程度指标:裕度指标、越限指标和切负荷指标。如果系统处于 健康状态或临界状态,则进一步通过裕度指标反映系统和元件安全运行的概率和裕度。如 果系统处于风险状态,则进一步通过越限指标反映线路潮流和母线电压越限的可能性和程 度;并通过切负荷指标反映负荷损失的可能性和期望值。 (3) 层次类指标 根据所关心的区域和目标不同,定义4个层次指标:系统指标、区域指标、负荷点指标 和元件指标。 13.3电力系统运行可靠性指标体系 411 (4)时限类指标 根据所关注的时间框架不同,定义短期指标与长期指标。短期指标的时间框架一般为 分钟或小时级;长期指标包括日指标、月指标、年指标等。 具体指标如表13.3.2所示,指标的计算公式如下。 表13.3.2运行可靠性指标体系 指 标 系统层 区域层 负荷点 元件层 状态类指标 健康状态概率 V V 临界状态概率 V V 风险状态概率 V V 程度类 指标 裕度 指标 潮流安全概率 V V V 潮流安全裕度 V V V 电压安全概率 V V V 电压上限安全裕度 V V V 电压下限安全裕度 V V V 潮流和电压安全概率 V V 越限 指标 潮流过载概率 V V V 潮流过载期望值 V V V 电压越限概率 V V V 电压越上限期望值 V 7 V 电压越下限期望值 V 7 V 潮流或电压越限概率 V V 切负荷 指标 潮流过载导致切负荷的概率 V V V V 潮流过载导致切负荷的期望值 V V V V 电压越限导致切负荷的概率 V V V 电压越限导致切负荷的期望值 V V V 切负荷概率 V 7 V 电力不足期望值 V V 电量不足期望值 V V V 严重程度指标 V V V 供电可用率 V V V 注:基于不同的预测时间z进行指标计算.即可得到相应的时限类指标(短期指标与长期指标)。 13.3.1运行可靠性状态类指标 (1) 健康状态概率 PHS(probability of healthy state): PHS= Sh ⑴ (13-1) Sk^DH 其中为系统状态s,在z时刻的概率;为处于健康状态的系统状态集合。 (2) 临界状态概率 PMS(probability of marginal state): PMS= 2 pst 为系统(区域、负荷点)在系统状态下的切负荷量,MW。 (36)系统(区域、负荷点)电量不足期望值 EENS(expected energy not supplied) (MW ? h): (13-35) Psk (r) X CSk (r)dr (37) 系统(区域、负荷点)严重程度指标SKseverity index)(系统分): SI = X 60 total 其中,L,<>ul为系统(区域、负荷点)的总负荷,MW。 (38) 系统(区域、负荷点)供电可用率SACservice availability): SA=1-^NS 需要说明的是,基于不同的预测时间步长《进行指标计算,即可得到相应的时限类指标 (短期指标与长期指标)。 EENS = (13-36) (13-37) (13-38) total 13.4电力系统元件的运行可靠性模型 电力系统运行中,重要发电机的停运会导致系统频率严重下降以及其他发电机组的跳 闸,频率严重失控时甚至导致系统频率崩溃;重要输变电设备的停运会引起系统潮流转移, 416 第13章电力系统运行可靠性 从而诱发大面积停电事故。因此,基于设备历史运行情况及其在未来短时间内的运行条件, 预测设备及电网的短期可靠性水平,对于指导调度员做出正确的控制决策从而降低大停电 风险、提高电力系统的运行可靠性具有重要作用。 在电力系统规划中,常采用恒定的设备故障率来计算系统中长期的可靠性水平,因为这 个长期统计平均值是设备长期运行情况的反映,如 图13.4.1虚线所示。然而恒定的平均故障率无法 描述历史运行条件和未来运行条件对设备停运风 险和系统运行可靠性的影响。例如连锁故障,按照 常规的元件可靠性模型,连锁故障的发生概率是基 于统计平均值的单重故障概率的乘积,数值非常 小,应该是百年不遇的事故。然而近年来这类故障 时常发生,造成理论与实际的严重脱离。原因在于 元件的可靠性建模出了问题,元件的停运概率应该 随着系统运行条件的变化而改变,如图13. 4. 1实线 所示。 图13.4.1可靠性模型参数(虚线是 平均值) 元件的运行可靠性模型综合考虑了运行条件和研究的时间尺度对元件停运概率的影 响。根据元件不同停运模式的机理,可建立相应的停运模型,如保护动作致停运模型、偶然 失效模型和老化失效模型等。应根据运行可靠性评估的应用场景选用合适的模型。若各停 运模型反映的停运事件相互独立,那么可以根据式(13-39)所示的可靠性逻辑串联关系对 它们进行组合使用: Ptoui = 1 - II(1 - P>> (13-39) 其中,为元件总的停运概率;P,为第i种停运模式下元件的停运概率,例如保护动作致 停运概率、偶然失效概率、老化失效概率等;《为考虑的停运模式的个数。本节主要介绍元 件的保护动作致停运模型和偶然失效模型,老化失效模型可参阅文献[7]。 13. 4.1保护动作致停运模型 1.线路过负荷保护动作模型 过负荷跳闸所引起的元件相继断开是一类可造成大面积停电的连锁故障。输电线路、 变压器等电力设备都装设有过负荷保护装置,然而保护装置的触发值的误差使得保护动作 切除设备存在不确定性。 过负荷继电保护系统主要由保护电流互感器和继电保护装置构成。一方面,保护电流 互感器的电流测量值存在误差,误差范围由该电流互感器的准确级决定;另一方面,继电保 护装置的触发值也存在误差,国标《继电器及装置基本试验方法(GB/T 7261—2000)》给出 了继电器装置极限误差的试验方法,实际产品的极限误差在±6%左右。设整个保护系统存 在的触发电流值L误差为±ei,并服从均值为'_,标准差为a,,范围为[Zse.od-e,), Ul+e,)]的截尾正态分布,其密度函数为 Jset 茫[LetO(l —Si),Jsetod +£l)] Iset) * 1 「 ( ^set IsetO )~] t r T z -l \ t z i | ---- exp------- I, e L-lSetO(l — ei),I?eto(l+ei)」 I Off! 72^ L 2ffI 」 (13-40) 13.4电力系统元件的运行可靠性模型 417 a =(I)

准则,将系统运行状态分为健康、临界和风险 状态。健康状态是指系统能够正常供电(无元件过负荷,电压和频率均在允许范围内),且满 足N_1准则;临界状态是指系统能够正常供电,但不满足N—1准则;风险状态是指系统 无法正常供电,可能需要削减负荷。基于该状态划分,定义3个状态指标:健康状态概率、 临界状态概率和风险状态概率。 需要说明的是,状态类指标可以根据不同的需求,采用不同状态划分方法,例如包括正 常、警戒、紧急、极端紧急、恢复状态的5状态划分等。本书采用的3状态划分的优点是,它 与经典的5状态划分一样,考虑了确定性的N-1准则,有利于被调度部门和工程界所接 受,同时比5状态划分更简洁清晰。 (2) 程度类指标 为了量化系统可靠性,具体描述线路潮流、母线电压等运行安全约束的满足情况及可能 导致的切负荷后果,定义3个程度指标:裕度指标、越限指标和切负荷指标。如果系统处于 健康状态或临界状态,则进一步通过裕度指标反映系统和元件安全运行的概率和裕度。如 果系统处于风险状态,则进一步通过越限指标反映线路潮流和母线电压越限的可能性和程 度;并通过切负荷指标反映负荷损失的可能性和期望值。 (3) 层次类指标 根据所关心的区域和目标不同,定义4个层次指标:系统指标、区域指标、负荷点指标 和元件指标。 13.3电力系统运行可靠性指标体系 411 (4)时限类指标 根据所关注的时间框架不同,定义短期指标与长期指标。短期指标的时间框架一般为 分钟或小时级;长期指标包括日指标、月指标、年指标等。 具体指标如表13.3.2所示,指标的计算公式如下。 表13.3.2运行可靠性指标体系 指 标 系统层 区域层 负荷点 元件层 状态类指标 健康状态概率 V V 临界状态概率 V V 风险状态概率 V V 程度类 指标 裕度 指标 潮流安全概率 V V V 潮流安全裕度 V V V 电压安全概率 V V V 电压上限安全裕度 V V V 电压下限安全裕度 V V V 潮流和电压安全概率 V V 越限 指标 潮流过载概率 V V V 潮流过载期望值 V V V 电压越限概率 V V V 电压越上限期望值 V 7 V 电压越下限期望值 V 7 V 潮流或电压越限概率 V V 切负荷 指标 潮流过载导致切负荷的概率 V V V V 潮流过载导致切负荷的期望值 V V V V 电压越限导致切负荷的概率 V V V 电压越限导致切负荷的期望值 V V V 切负荷概率 V 7 V 电力不足期望值 V V 电量不足期望值 V V V 严重程度指标 V V V 供电可用率 V V V 注:基于不同的预测时间z进行指标计算.即可得到相应的时限类指标(短期指标与长期指标)。 13.3.1运行可靠性状态类指标 (1) 健康状态概率 PHS(probability of healthy state): PHS= Sh ⑴ (13-1) Sk^DH 其中为系统状态s,在z时刻的概率;为处于健康状态的系统状态集合。 (2) 临界状态概率 PMS(probability of marginal state): PMS= 2 pst 为系统(区域、负荷点)在系统状态下的切负荷量,MW。 (36)系统(区域、负荷点)电量不足期望值 EENS(expected energy not supplied) (MW ? h): (13-35) Psk (r) X CSk (r)dr (37) 系统(区域、负荷点)严重程度指标SKseverity index)(系统分): SI = X 60 total 其中,L,<>ul为系统(区域、负荷点)的总负荷,MW。 (38) 系统(区域、负荷点)供电可用率SACservice availability): SA=1-^NS 需要说明的是,基于不同的预测时间步长《进行指标计算,即可得到相应的时限类指标 (短期指标与长期指标)。 EENS = (13-36) (13-37) (13-38) total 13.4电力系统元件的运行可靠性模型 电力系统运行中,重要发电机的停运会导致系统频率严重下降以及其他发电机组的跳 闸,频率严重失控时甚至导致系统频率崩溃;重要输变电设备的停运会引起系统潮流转移, 416 第13章电力系统运行可靠性 从而诱发大面积停电事故。因此,基于设备历史运行情况及其在未来短时间内的运行条件, 预测设备及电网的短期可靠性水平,对于指导调度员做出正确的控制决策从而降低大停电 风险、提高电力系统的运行可靠性具有重要作用。 在电力系统规划中,常采用恒定的设备故障率来计算系统中长期的可靠性水平,因为这 个长期统计平均值是设备长期运行情况的反映,如 图13.4.1虚线所示。然而恒定的平均故障率无法 描述历史运行条件和未来运行条件对设备停运风 险和系统运行可靠性的影响。例如连锁故障,按照 常规的元件可靠性模型,连锁故障的发生概率是基 于统计平均值的单重故障概率的乘积,数值非常 小,应该是百年不遇的事故。然而近年来这类故障 时常发生,造成理论与实际的严重脱离。原因在于 元件的可靠性建模出了问题,元件的停运概率应该 随着系统运行条件的变化而改变,如图13. 4. 1实线 所示。 图13.4.1可靠性模型参数(虚线是 平均值) 元件的运行可靠性模型综合考虑了运行条件和研究的时间尺度对元件停运概率的影 响。根据元件不同停运模式的机理,可建立相应的停运模型,如保护动作致停运模型、偶然 失效模型和老化失效模型等。应根据运行可靠性评估的应用场景选用合适的模型。若各停 运模型反映的停运事件相互独立,那么可以根据式(13-39)所示的可靠性逻辑串联关系对 它们进行组合使用: Ptoui = 1 - II(1 - P>> (13-39) 其中,为元件总的停运概率;P,为第i种停运模式下元件的停运概率,例如保护动作致 停运概率、偶然失效概率、老化失效概率等;《为考虑的停运模式的个数。本节主要介绍元 件的保护动作致停运模型和偶然失效模型,老化失效模型可参阅文献[7]。 13. 4.1保护动作致停运模型 1.线路过负荷保护动作模型 过负荷跳闸所引起的元件相继断开是一类可造成大面积停电的连锁故障。输电线路、 变压器等电力设备都装设有过负荷保护装置,然而保护装置的触发值的误差使得保护动作 切除设备存在不确定性。 过负荷继电保护系统主要由保护电流互感器和继电保护装置构成。一方面,保护电流 互感器的电流测量值存在误差,误差范围由该电流互感器的准确级决定;另一方面,继电保 护装置的触发值也存在误差,国标《继电器及装置基本试验方法(GB/T 7261—2000)》给出 了继电器装置极限误差的试验方法,实际产品的极限误差在±6%左右。设整个保护系统存 在的触发电流值L误差为±ei,并服从均值为'_,标准差为a,,范围为[Zse.od-e,), Ul+e,)]的截尾正态分布,其密度函数为 Jset 茫[LetO(l —Si),Jsetod +£l)] Iset) * 1 「 ( ^set IsetO )~] t r T z -l \ t z i | ---- exp------- I, e L-lSetO(l — ei),I?eto(l+ei)」 I Off! 72^ L 2ffI 」 (13-40) 13.4电力系统元件的运行可靠性模型 417 a =(I)

eauty! I should scarcely have known you: you look like a lady now Isabella Linton is not to be compared with her, is she, Frances?” “Isabella has not her natural advantages,w replied his wife, “but she must mind and not grow wild again here. Ellen, help Miss Catherine off with her things—Stay dear, you will disarrange your curls—let me untie your hat.” I removed the habit, and there shone forth beneath a grand plaid silk frock, white trousers, and burnished shoes; and, while her eyes sparkled joyfully when the dogs came bounding up to welcome her, she dared hardly touch them lest they should fawn upon her splendid garments. She kissed me gently: I was all flour making the Christmas cake, and it would not have done to give me a hug; and then she looked round for Heathcliff Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw watched anxiously their meeting; thinking it would enable them to judge, in some measure, what grounds they had for hoping to succeed in separating the two friends. Heathcliff was hard to discover, at first. If he were careless, -49- Wuthering Heights and uncared for, before Catherine’s absence, he had been ten times more so since. Nobody but I even did him the kindness to call him a dirty boy and bid him wash himself once a week; and children of his age seldom have a natural pleasure in soap and water. Therefore, not to mention his clothes, which had seen three months, service in mire and dust, and his thick uncombed hair, the surface of his face and hands was dismally beclouded. He might well skulk behind the settle, on beholding such a bright, graceful damsel enter the house, instead of a rough-headed counterpart of himself^ as he expected. “Is Heathcliff not here?” she demanded, pulling off her gloves, and displaying fingers wonderfully whitened with doing nothing and staying indoors. “Heathcliff^ you may come forward/5 cried Mr. Hindley enjoying his discomfiture, and gratified to see what a forbidding young blackguard he would be compelled to present himself “Ybu may come and wish Miss Catherine welcome, like the other servants.” Cathy catching a glimpse of her friend in his concealment, flew to embrace him; she bestowed seven or eight kisses on his cheek within the second, and then stopped, and drawing back, burst into a laugh, exclaiming, “Why how very black and cross you look! and how—how funny and grim! But that’s because Fm used to Edgar and Isabella Linton. Well, Heathcliff^ have you forgotten me?” She had some reason to put the question, for shame and pride threw double gloom over his countenance, and kept him immovable. “Shake hands, Heathcliff/’ said Mr. Earnshaw condescendingly; “once in a way that is permitted.” “I shall not,” replied the boy finding his tongue at last; “I shall not stand to be laughed at. I shall not bear it!” And he would have broken from the circle, but Miss Cathy seized him again. “I did not mean to laugh at you,” she said, “I could not hinder myself: Heathcliff^ shake hands at least! What are you sulky for? It was only that you looked odd. If you wash your face and brush your hair, it will be all right: but you are so dirty!” -50- CHAPTER 7 She gazed concernedly at the dusky fingers she held in her own, and also at her dress; which she feared had gained no embellishment from its contact with his. “Abu neednY have touched me!” he answered, following her eye and snatching away his hand. “I shall be as dirty as I please: and I like to be dirty and I will be dirty” With that he dashed headforemost out of the room, amid the merriment of the master and mistress, and to the serious disturbance of Catherine; who could not comprehend how her remarks should have produced such an exhibition of bad temper. After playing lady’s maid to the new-comer, and putting my cakes in the oven, and making the house and kitchen cheerful with great fires, befitting Christmas-eve, I prepared to sit down and amuse myself by singing carols, all alone; regardless of Joseph’s affirmations that he considered the merry tunes I chose as next door to songs. He had retired to private prayer in his chamber, and Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw were engaging Miss/s attention by sundry gay trifles bought for her to present to the little Lintons, as an acknowledgment of their kindness. They had invited them to spend the morrow at Wuthering Heights, and the invitation had been accepted, on one condition: Mrs. Linton begged that her darlings might be kept carefully apart from that “naughty swearing boy\ Under these circumstances I remained solitary I smelt the rich scent of the heating spices; and admired the shining kitchen utensils, the polished clock, decked in holly the silver mugs ranged on a tray ready to be filled with mulled ale for supper; and above all, the speckless purity of my particular care一the scoured and well- swept floor. I gave due inward applause to every object, and then I remembered how old Earnshaw used to come in when all was tidied, and call me a cant lass, and slip a shilling into my hand as a Christmas-box; and from that I went on to think of his fondness for Heathcliff^ and his dread lest he should suffer neglect after death had removed him: and that naturally led me to consider the poor lad’s situation now; and from singing I changed my mind to -51- Wuthering Heights crying. It struck me soon, however, there would be more sense in endeavouring to repair some of his wrongs than shedding tears over them: I got up and walked into the court to seek him. He was not far; I found him smoothing the glossy coat of the new pony in the stable, and feeding the other beasts, according to custom. “Make haste, Heathcliff!” I said, uthe kitchen is so comfortable; and Joseph is up-stairs: make haste, and let me dress you smart before Miss Cathy comes out, and then you can sit together, with the whole hearth to yourselves, and have a long chatter till bedtime.” He proceeded with his task, and never turned his head towards me. “Come—are you coming?^^ I continued, “There’s a little cake for each of you, nearly enough; and you’ll need halfan-hour’s donning.^^ I waited five minutes, but getting no answer left him. Catherine supped with her brother and sister-in-law: Joseph and I joined at an unsociable meal, seasoned with reproofs on one side and sauciness on the other. His cake and cheese remained on the table all night for the fairies. He managed to continue work till nine o’clock,and then marched dumb and dour to his chamber. Cathy sat up late, having a world of things to order for the reception of her new friends: she came into the kitchen once to speak to her old one; but he was gone, and she only stayed to ask what was the matter with him, and then went back. In the morning he rose early; and, as it was a holiday; carried his ill-humour onto the moors; not re- appearing till the family were departed for church. Fasting and reflection seemed to have brought him to a better spirit. He hung about me for a while, and having screwed up his courage, exclaimed abruptly~~'‘Nelly make me decent,Fm going to be good”. “High time, Heathcliff/’ I said, “you have grieved Catherine: she’s sorry she ever came home, I daresay! It looks as if you envied her, because she is more thought of than you.” The notion of envying Catherine was incomprehensible to him, but the notion of grieving her he understood clearly enough. -52 - CHAPTER 7 “Did she say she was grieved?” he inquired, looking very serious. “She cried when I told her you were off again this morning.w “Wfell, I cried last night,M he returned, “and I had more reason to cry than she.” uYes: you had the reason of going to bed with a proud heart and an empty stomach,M said I. “Proud people breed sad sorrows for themselves. But, if you be ashamed of your touchiness, you must ask pardon, mind, when she comes in. Vou must go up and offer to kiss her, and say~~you know best what to say; only do it heartily and not as if you thought her converted into a stranger by her grand dress. And now, though I have dinner to get ready Uli steal time to arrange you so that Edgar Linton shall look quite a doll beside you: and that he does. Vou are younger, and yet, Fll be bound, you are taller and twice as broad across the shoulders; you could knock him down in a twinkling; don’t you feel that you could?” Heathcliff’s face brightened a moment; then it was overcast afresh, and he sighed. “But, Nelly if I knocked him down twenty times, that wouldn’t make him less handsome or me more so. I wish I had light hair and a fair skin, and was dressed and behaved as well, and had a chance of being as rich as he will be!” ‘And cried for mamma at every turn,” I added, “and trembled if a country lad heaved his fist against you, and sat at home all day for a shower of rain. Oh, Heathcliffi you are showing a poor spirit! Come to the glass, and I’ll let you see what you should wish. Do you mark those two lines between your eyes; and those thick brows, that, instead of rising arched, sink in the middle; and that couple of black fiends, so deeply buried, who never open their windows boldly; but lurk glinting under them, like deviFs spies? Wish and learn to smooth away the surly wrinkles, to raise your lids frankly; and change the fiends to confident, innocent angels, suspecting and doubting nothing, and always seeing friends where they are not sure of foes. Don’t get the expression of a vicious cur -53- Wuthering Heights that appears to know the kicks it gets are its desert, and yet hates all the world, as well as the kicker, for what it suffers.” “In other words, I must wish for Edgar Lintorfs great blue eyes and even forehead,w he replied. “I do—and that won’t help me to them.,, t6A good heart will help you to a bonny face, my lad,” I continued, “if you were a regular black; and a bad one will turn the bonniest into something worse than ugly And now that we’ve done washing, and combing, and sulking—tell me whether you don’t think yourself rather handsome? I’ll tell you, I do. Ybu’re fit for a prince in disguise. Who knows but your father was Emperor of China, and your mother an Indian queen, each of them able to buy up, with one week’s income, Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange together? And you were kidnapped by wicked sailors and brought to England. Were I in your place, I would frame high notions of my birth; and the thoughts of what I was should give me courage and dignity to support the oppressions of a little farmerr’ So I chattered on; and Heathcliff gradually lost his frown and began to look quite pleasant, when all at once our conversation was interrupted by a rumbling sound moving up the road and entering the court. He ran to the window and I to the door, just in time to behold the two Lintons descend from the family carriage, smothered in cloaks and furs, and the Earnshaws dismount from their horses: they often rode to church in winter. Catherine took a hand of each of the children, and brought them into the house and set them before the fire, which quickly put colour into their white faces. I urged my companion to hasten now and show his amiable humour, and he willingly obeyed; but ill luck would have it that, as he opened the door leading from the kitchen on one side, Hindley opened it on the other. They met, and the master, irritated at seeing him clean and cheerful, or, perhaps, eager to keep his promise to Mrs. Linton, shoved him back with a sudden thrust, and angrily bade Joseph “keep the fellow out of the room—send him into the -54 - CHAPTER 7 garret till dinner is over. He’ll be cramming his fingers in the tarts and stealing the fruit, if left alone with them a minute.” “Nay sir,” I could not avoid answering, “he’ll touch nothing, not he: and I suppose he must have his share of the dainties as well as we.” “He shall have his share of my hand, if I catch him downstairs till dark,” cried Hindleg “Begone, you vagabond! What! you are attempting the coxcomb, are you? Wait till I get hold of those elegant locks—see if I won’t pull them a bit longer!” “They are long enough already,M observed Master Linton, peeping from the doorway; “I wonder they don’t make his head ache. It’s like a colt’s mane over his eyes!” He ventured this remark without any intention to insult; but Heathcliff’s violent nature was not prepared to endure the appearance of impertinence from one whom he seemed to hate, even then, as a rival. He seized a tureen of hot apple sauce, the first thing that came under his gripe, and dashed it full against the speaker’s face and neck; who instantly commenced a lament that brought Isabella and Catherine hurrying to the place. Mr. Earnshaw snatched up the culprit directly and conveyed him to his chamber; where, doubtless, he administered a rough remedy to cool the fit of passion, for he reappeared red and breathless. I got the dishcloth, and rather spitefully scrubbed Edgar’s nose and mouth, affirming it served him right for meddling. His sister began weeping to go home, and Cathy stood by confounded, blushing for all. “Ybu should not have spoken to him!,, she expostulated with Master Linton. “He was in a bad temper, and now Ydu’ve spoilt your visit; and he’ll be flogged: I hate him to be flogged! I can’t eat my dinner. Why did you speak to him, Edgar?” “I didn’t,” sobbed the youth, escaping from my hands, and finishing the remainder of the purification with his cambric pocket-handkerchief “I promised mamma that I wouldn’t say one word to him, and I didn’t.” "'Well, don’t cry;” replied Catherine, contemptuously; “you’re -55- Wuthering Heights not killed. Don’t make more mischief; my brother is coming: be quiet! Hush, Isabella! Has anybody hurt you?J, “There, there, children—to your seats!” cried Hindley bustling in. “That brute of a lad has warmed me nicely Next time, Master Edgar, take the law into your own fists一it will give you an appetite!” The little party recovered its equanimity at sight of the fragrant feast. They were hungry after their ride, and easily consoled, since no real harm had befallen them. Mr. Earnshaw carved bountiful platefuls, and the mistress made them merry with lively talk. I waited behind her chair, and was pained to behold Catherine, with dry eyes and an indifferent air, commence cutting up the wing of a goose before her. ‘An unfeeling child,” I thought to myselfj “how lightly she dismisses her old playmate’s troubles. I could not have imagined her to be so selfish.” She lifted a mouthful to her lips: then she set it down again: her cheeks flushed, and the tears gushed over them. She slipped her fork to the floor, and hastily dived under the cloth to conceal her emotion. I did not call her unfeeling long; for I perceived she was in purgatory throughout the day and wearying to find an opportunity of getting by herselfj or paying a visit to Heathcliffj who had been locked up by the master: as I discovered, on endeavouring to introduce to him a private mess of victuals. In the evening we had a dance. Cathy begged that he might be liberated then, as Isabella Linton had no partner: her entreaties were vain, and I was appointed to supply the deficiency We got rid of all gloom in the excitement of the exercise, and our pleasure was increased by the arrival of the Gimmerton band, mustering fifteen strong: a trumpet, a trombone, clarionets, bassoons, French horns, and a bass viol, besides singers. They go the rounds of all the respectable houses, and receive contributions every Christmas, and we esteemed it a first-rate treat to hear them. After the usual carols had been sung, we set them to songs and glees. Mrs. Earnshaw loved the music, and so they gave us plenty Catherine loved it too: but she said it sounded sweetest at -56- CHAPTER 7 the top of the steps, and she went up in the dark: I followed. They shut the house door below, never noting our absence, it was so full of people. She made no stay at the stairs’-head,but mounted farther, to the garret where Heathcliff was confined, and called him. He stubbornly declined answering for a while: she persevered, and finally persuaded him to hold communion with her through the boards. I let the poor things converse unmolested, till I supposed the songs were going to cease, and the singers to get some refreshment: then I clambered up the ladder to warn her. Instead of finding her outside, I heard her voice within. The little monkey had crept by the skylight of one garret, along the roofj into the skylight of the other, and it was with the utmost difficulty I could coax her out again. When she did come, Heathcliff came with her, and she insisted that I should take him into the kitchen, as my fellow-servant had gone to a neighbour’s, to be removed from the sound of our “devil’s psalmody”,as it pleased him to call it. I told them I intended by no means to encourage their tricks: but as the prisoner had never broken his fast since yesterday’s dinner, I would wink at his cheating Mr. Hindley that once. He went down: I set him a stool by the fire, and offered him a quantity of good things: but he was sick and could eat little, and my attempts to entertain him were thrown away He leant his two elbows on his knees, and his chin on his hands, and remained wrapt in dumb meditation. On my inquiring the subject of his thoughts, he answered gravely—“I’m trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back. I don’t care how long I wait, if I can only do it at last. I hope he will not die before I do”! “For shame, Heathcliff!” said I. “It is for God to punish wicked people; we should learn to forgive.” “No, God won’t have the satisfaction that I shall,” he returned, “I only wish I knew the best way! Let me alone, and I’ll plan it out: while Fm thinking of that I don’t feel pain.” “But, Mr. Lockwood, I forget these tales cannot divert you. I’m annoyed how I should dream of chattering on at such a rate; -57- Wuthering Heights and your gruel cold, and you nodding for bed! I could have told Heathcliff’s history all that you need hear, in half a dozen words.” 木 木* 木 本 本 Thus interrupting herself the housekeeper rose, and proceeded to lay aside her sewing; but I felt incapable of moving from the hearth, and I was very far from nodding. “Sit still, Mrs. Dean,” I cried; “do sit still another half hour. %u’ve done just right to tell the story leisurely That is the method I like; and you must finish it in the same style. I am interested in every character you have mentioned, more or less.” “The clock is on the stroke of eleven, sir.” “No matter一I’m not accustomed to go to bed in the long hours. One or two is early enough for a person who lies till ten.” shouldn’t lie till ten. There’s the very prime of the morning gone long before that time. A person who has not done one-half his da/s work by ten o’clock,runs a chance of leaving the other half undone.” “Nevertheless, Mrs. Dean, resume your chair; because to- morrow I intend lengthening the night till afternoon. I prognosticate for myself an obstinate cold, at least.” “I hope not, sir. Well, you must allow me to leap over some three years; during that space Mrs. Earnshaw—” “No, no, Fll allow nothing of the sort! Are you acquainted with the mood of mind in which, if you were seated alone, and the cat licking its kitten on the rug before you, you would watch the operation so intently that puss’s neglect of one ear would put you seriously out of temper?” aA terribly lazy mood, I should say” “On the contrary a tiresomely active one. It is mine, at present; and, therefore, continue minutely I perceive that people in these regions acquire over people in towns the value that a spider in a dungeon does over a spider in a cottage, to their various occupants; and yet the deepened attraction is not entirely owing to the situation of the looker-on. They do live more in earnest, -58- CHAPTER 7 more in themselves, and less in surface change, and frivolous external things. I could fancy a love for life here almost possible; and I was a fixed unbeliever in any love of a year’s standing. One state resembles setting a hungry man down to a single dish, on which he may concentrate his entire appetite and do it justice; the other, introducing him to a table laid out by French cooks: he can perhaps extract as much enjoyment from the whole; but each part is a mere atom in his regard and remembrance.M “Oh! here we are the same as anywhere else, when you get to know us,” observed Mrs. Dean, somewhat puzzled at my speech. “Excuse me,” I responded, “you,my good friend, are a striking evidence against that assertion. Excepting a few provincialisms of slight consequence, you have no marks of the manners which I am habituated to consider as peculiar to your class. I am sure you have thought a great deal more than the generality of servants think. You have been compelled to cultivate your reflective faculties for want of occasions for frittering your life away in silly trifles.” Mrs. Dean laughed. “I certainly esteem myself a steady; reasonable kind of body;” she said, “not exactly from living among the hills and seeing one set of faces, and one series of actions, from year’s end to year’s end; but I have undergone sharp discipline, which has taught me wisdom; and then, I have read more than you would fancy; Mr. Lockwood. %u could not open a book in this library that I have not looked into, and got something out of also: unless it be that range of Greek and Latin, and that of French; and those I know one from another: it is as much as you can expect of a poor man’s daughter. However, if I am to follow my story in true gossip’s fashion, I had better go on; and instead of leaping three years, I will be content to pass to the next summer—the summer of 1778, that is nearly twenty-three years ago.” -5少 CHAPTER 8 On the morning of a fine June day my first bonny little nursling, and the last of the ancient Earnshaw stock, was born. We were busy with the hay in a far-away field, when the girl that usually brought our breakfasts came running an hour too soon across the meadow and up the lane, calling me as she ran. “Oh, such a grand bairn!” she panted out, “The finest lad that ever breathed! But the doctor says missis must go: he says she’s been in a consumption these many months. I heard him tell Mr. Hindley: and now she has nothing to keep her, and she’ll be dead before winter, ^ou must come home directly Vbu’re to nurse it, Nelly: to feed it with sugar and milk, and take care of it day and night. I wish I were you, because it will be all yours when there is no missis!” “But is she very I asked, flinging down my rake and tying my bonnet. “I guess she is; yet she looks bravely;” replied the girl, “and she talks as if she thought of living to see it grow a man. She’s out of her head for joy, it’s such a beauty! If I were her I’m certain I should not die: I should get better at the bare sight of it, in spite of Kenneth. I was fairly mad at him. Dame Archer brought the cherub down to master, in the house, and his face just began to light up, then the old croaker steps forward, and says he— “Earnshax^ it’s a blessing your wife has been spared to leave you this son. When she came, I felt convinced we shouldn’t keep her long; and now, I must tell you, the winter will probably finish her. Don’t take on, and fret about it too much: it can’t be helped. And besides, you should have known better than to choose such a rush of a lass”! -6o- CHAPTER 8 "And what did the master answer?” I inquired. “I think he swore: but I didn’t mind him, I was straining to see the bairn,” and she bc^gan again to describe it rapturously I, as zealous as herself^ hurried eagerly home to admire, on my part; though I was very sad for Hindley’s sake. He had room in his heart only for two idols—his wife and himself: he doted on both, and adored one, and I couldn’t conceive how he would bear the loss. When we got to Wuthering Heights, there he stood at the front door; and, as I passed in, I asked, “how was the baby?” “Nearly ready to run about, Nell!” he replied, putting on a cheerful smile. 'And the mistress?” I ventured to inquire; “the doctor says she’s—” “Damn the doctor!he interrupted, reddening, “Frances is quite right: she’ll be perfectly well by this time next week. Are you going up-stairs? will you tell her that Pll come, if she’ll promise not to talk. I left her because she would not hold her tongue; and she must—tell her Mr. Kenneth says she must be quiet.” I delivered this message to Mrs. Earnshaw; she seemed in flighty spirits, and replied merrily “I hardly spoke a word, Ellen, and there he has gone out twice, crying. Well, say I promise I won’t speak: but that does not bind me not to laugh at him!” Poor soul! Till within a week of her death that gay heart never failed her; and her husband persisted doggedly; nay, furiously; in affirming her health improved every day When Kenneth warned him that his medicines were useless at that stage of the malady and he needn’t put him to further expense by attending her, he retorted, “I know you need not—she’s well—she does not want any more attendance from you! She never was in a consumption. It was a fever; and it is gone: her pulse is as slow as mine nox^ and her cheek as cool.” He told his wife the same story; and she seemed to believe him; but one night, while leaning on his shoulder, in the act of -6l- Wuthering Heights saying she thought she should be able to get up to-morrow; a fit of coughing took her—a very slight one—he raised her in his arms; she put her two hands about his neck, her face changed, and she was dead. As the girl had anticipated, the child Hareton fell wholly into my hands. Mr. Earnshaw; provided he saw him healthy and never heard him cry; was contented, as far as regarded him. For himself, he grew desperate: his sorrow was of that kind that will not lament. He neither wept nor prayed; he cursed and defied: execrated God and man, and gave himself up to reckless dissipation. The servants could not bear his tyrannical and evil conduct long: Joseph and I were the only two that would stay I had not the heart to leave my charge; and besides, you knov^ I had been his foster-sister, and excused his behaviour more readily than a stranger would. Joseph remained to hector over tenants and labourers; and because it was his vocation to be where he had plenty of wickedness to reprove. The master’s bad ways and bad companions formed a pretty example for Catherine and HeathclifE His treatment of the latter was enough to make a fiend of a saint. And, truly it appeared as if the lad were possessed of something diabolical at that period. He delighted to witness Hindley degrading himself past redemption; and became daily more notable for savage sullenness and ferocity I could not half tell what an infernal house we had. The curate dropped calling, and nobody decent came near us, at last; unless Edgar Linton’s visits to Miss Cathy might be an exception. At fifteen she was the queen of the country-side; she had no peer; and she did turn out a haughty headstrong creature! I own I did not like her, after infancy was past; and I vexed her frequently by trying to bring down her arrogance: she never took an aversion to me, though. She had a wondrous constancy to old attachments: even Heathcliff kept his hold on her affections unalterably; and young Linton, with all his superiority; found it difficult to make an equally deep impression. He was my late master: that is his -62- CHAPTER 8 portrait over the fireplace. It used to hang on one side, and his wife’s on the other; but hers has been removed, or else you might see something of what she was. Can you make that out? Mrs. Dean raised the candle, and I discerned a soft-featured face, exceedingly resembling the young lady at the Heights, but more pensive and amiable in expression. It formed a sweet picture. The long light hair curled slightly on the temples; the eyes were large and serious; the figure almost too graceful. I did not marvel how Catherine Earnshaw could forget her first friend for such an individual. I marvelled much how he, with a mind to correspond with his person, could fancy my idea of Catherine Earnshaw 4A very agreeable portrait,M I observed to the house-keeper, “Is it like?" “Yes,” she answered, “but he looked better when he was animated; that is his everyday countenance: he wanted spirit in general.” Catherine had kept up her acquaintance with the Lintons since her five-weeks’ residence among them; and as she had no temptation to show her rough side in their company and had the sense to be ashamed of being rude where she experienced such invariable courtesy; she imposed unwittingly on the old lady and gentleman by her ingenious cordiality; gained the admiration of Isabella, and the heart and soul of her brother: acquisitions that flattered her from the first—for she was full of ambition—and led her to adopt a double character without exactly intending to deceive any one. In the place where she heard HeathclifF termed a “vulgar young ruffian” and “worse than a brute”,she took care not to act like him; but at home she had small inclination to practise politeness that would only be laughed at, and restrain an unruly nature when it would bring her neither credit nor praise. Mr. Edgar seldom mustered courage to visit Wuthering Heights openly He had a terror of Earnshaw’s reputation, and shrunk from encountering him; and yet he was always received with our -63- Wuthering Heights best attempts at civility: the master himself avoided offending him, knowing why he came; and if he could not be gracious, kept out of the way I rather think his appearance there was distasteful to Catherine; she was not artful, never played the coquette, and had evidently an objection to her two friends meeting at all; for when Heathcliff expressed contempt of Linton in his presence, she could not half coincide, as she did in his absence; and when Linton evinced disgust and antipathy to Heathcliffi she dared not treat his sentiments with indifference, as if depreciation of her playmate were of scarcely any consequence to her. Fve had many a laugh at her perplexities and untold troubles, which she vainly strove to hide from my mockery That sounds ill-natured: but she was so proud it became really impossible to pity her distresses, till she should be chastened into more humility She did bring herself finally to confess, and to confide in me: there was not a soul else that she might fashion into an adviser. Mr. Hindley had gone from home one afternoon, and Heathcliff presumed to give himself a holiday on the strength of it. He had reached the age of sixteen then, I think, and without having bad features, or being deficient in intellect, he contrived to convey an impression of inward and outward repulsiveness that his present aspect retains no traces o£ In the first place, he had by that time lost the benefit of his early education: continual hard work, begun soon and concluded late, had extinguished any curiosity he once possessed in pursuit of knowledge, and any love for books or learning. His childhood’s sense of superiority; instilled into him by the favours of old Mr. Earnshaw; was faded away He struggled long to keep up an equality with Catherine in her studies, and yielded with poignant though silent regret: but he yielded completely; and there was no prevailing on him to take a step in the way of moving upward, when he found he must, necessarily; sink beneath his former level. Then personal appearance sympathised with mental deterioration: he acquired a slouching gait and ignoble look; his naturally reserved disposition -6个 CHAPTER 8 was exaggerated into an almost idiotic excess of unsociable moroseness; and he took a grim pleasure, apparentlj; in exciting the aversion rather than the esteem of his few acquaintances. Catherine and he were constant companions still at his seasons of respite from labour; but he had ceased to express his fondness for her in words, and recoiled with angry suspicion from her girlish caresses, as if conscious there could be no gratification in lavishing such marks of affection on him. On the before-named occasion he came into the house to announce his intention of doing nothing, while I was assisting Miss Cathy to arrange her dress: she had not reckoned on his taking it into his head to be idle; and imagining she would have the whole place to herselfj she managed, by some means, to inform Mr. Edgar of her brother’s absence, and was then preparing to receive him. “Cathy; are you busy this afternoon?” asked Heathcliffi ‘Are you going anywhere?” “No, it is raining/5 she answered. “Why have you that silk frock on, then?” he said, “Nobody coming here, I hope?” “Not that I know of/’ stammered Miss, “but you should be in the field no\^ Heathcliff It is an hour past dinnertime: I thought you were gone.” “Hindley does not often free us from his accursed presence/ observed the boy; “I’ll not work any more to-day: I’ll stay with you.” “Oh,but Joseph will she suggested, “you’d better go!” ‘Joseph is loading lime on the further side of Penistone Crags; it will take him till dark, and he’ll never know” So, saying, he lounged to the fire, and sat down. Catherine reflected an instant, with knitted brows—she found it needful to smooth the way for an intrusion. “Isabella and Edgar Linton talked of calling this afternoon,M she said, at the conclusion of a minute’s silence, it rains, I hardly expect them; but they may come, and if they do, you run the risk of being scolded for no good.” -65- Wuthering Heights “Order Ellen to say you are engaged, Cathy” he persisted, “don’t turn me out for those pitiful, silly friends of yours! I’m on the point, sometimes, of complaining that they—but I’ll not—” “That they what?” cried Catherine, gazing at him with a troubled countenance. “Oh, Nelly!” she added petulantly; jerking her head away from my hands, “Vdu’ve combed my hair quite out of curl! That’s enough; let me alone. What are you on the point of complaining about, Heathcliff?” “Nothing~only look at the almanack on that wall;” he pointed to a framed sheet hanging near the window; and continued, “The crosses are for the evenings you have spent with the Lintons, the dots for those spent with me. Do you see? Fve marked every day” uYes—very foolish: as if I took notice!” replied Catherine, in a peevish tone. ‘And where is the sense of that?” “lb show that I do take notice,” said Heathcliff ‘And should I always be sitting with you?” she demanded, growing more irritated. “What good do I get? What do you talk about? You might be dumb, or a baby for anything you say to amuse me, or for anything you do, either!” Uybu never told me before that I talked too little, or that you disliked my company Cathy!,, exclaimed Heathcliff, in much agitation. “It’s no company at all, when people know nothing and say nothing,n she muttered. Her companion rose up, but he hadn’t time to express his feelings further, for a horse’s feet were heard on the flags, and having knocked gently young Linton entered, his face brilliant with delight at the unexpected summon she had received. Doubtless Catherine marked the difference between her friends, as one came in and the other went out. The contrast resembled what you see in exchanging a bleak, hilly coal country for a beautiful fertile valley; and his voice and greeting were as opposite as his aspect. He had a sweet, low manner of speaking, and pronounced his words as you do: that’s less gruff than we talk here, and softer. -66- CHAPTER 8 “I’m not come too soon, am I?” he said, casting a look at me: I had begun to wipe the plate, and tidy some drawers at the far end in the dresser. “No,” answered Catherine. “What are you doing there, Nelly?,, “My work, Miss,” I replied. (Mr. Hindley had given me directions to make a third party in any private visits Linton chose to pay) She stepped behind me and whispered crossly “THake yourself and your dusters off; when company are in the house, servants don’t commence scouring and cleaning in the room where they are!” “It’s a good opportunity now that master is away” I answered aloud, “he hates me to be fidgeting over these things in his presence. Fm sure Mr. Edgar will excuse me.” “I hate you to be fidgeting in my presence,exclaimed the young lady imperiously not allowing her guest time to speak: she had failed to recover her equanimity since the little dispute with HeathclifE “I’m sorry for it, Miss Catherine,n was my response; and I proceeded assiduously with my occupation. She, supposing Edgar could not see her, snatched the cloth from my hand, and pinched me, with a prolonged wrench, very spitefully on the arm. I’ve said I did not love her, and rather relished mortifying her vanity now and then: besides, she hurt me extremely; so I started up from my knees, and screamed out, “Oh, Miss, that’s a nasty trick! You have no right to nip me, and Pm not going to bear it.” “I didn’t touch you, you lying creature!” cried she, her fingers tingling to repeat the act, and her ears red with rage. She never had power to conceal her passion, it always set her whole complexion in a blaze. “What’s that, then?” I retorted, showing a decided purple witness to refute her. She stamped her foot, wavered a moment, and then, irresistibly -67- Wuthering Heights impelled by the naughty spirit within her, slapped me on the cheek: a stinging blow that filled both eyes with water. “Catherine, love! Catherine!” interposed Linton, greatly shocked at the double fault of falsehood and violence which his idol had committed. “Leave the room, Ellen!” she repeated, trembling all over. Little Hareton, who followed me everywhere, and was sitting near me on the floor, at seeing my tears commenced crying himselfj and sobbed out complaints against “wicked aunt Cath/’, which drew her fury on to his unlucky head: she seized his shoulders, and shook him till the poor child waxed livid, and Edgar thoughtlessly laid hold of her hands to deliver him. In an instant one was wrung free, and the astonished young man felt it applied over his own ear in a way that could not be mistaken for jest. He drew back in consternation. I lifted Hareton in my arms, and walked off to the kitchen with him, leaving the door of communication open, for I was curious to watch how they would settle their disagreement. The insulted visitor moved to the spot where he had laid his hat, pale and with a quivering lip. “That’s right!” I said to myself “Take warning and begone! It’s a kindness to let you have a glimpse of her genuine disposition.” uWhere are you going?” demanded Catherine, advancing to the door. He swerved aside, and attempted to pass. “Abu must not go!” she exclaimed, energetically “I must and shall!” he replied in a subdued voice. “No,” she persisted, grasping the handle, “not yet, Edgar Linton: sit down; you shall not leave me in that temper. I should be miserable all night, and I won’t be miserable for you!” “Can I stay after you have struck me?” asked Linton. Catherine was mute. “Y)u’ve made me afraid and ashamed of you,” he continued, “I’ll not come here again!” Her eyes began to glisten and her lids to twinkle. -68- CHAPTER 8 'And you told a deliberate untruth!” he said. “I didn’t!” she cried, recovering her speech, “I did nothing deliberately Well, go, if you please―get away! And now Fll cry— Uli cry myself sick!” She dropped down on her knees by a chair, and set to weeping in serious earnest. Edgar persevered in his resolution as far as the court; there he lingered. I resolved to encourage him. “Miss is dreadfully wayward, sir,” I called out, 'As bad as any marred child: Ybu’t better be riding home, or else she will be sick, only to grieve us.” The soft thing looked askance through the window: he possessed the power to depart as much as a cat possesses the power to leave a mouse half killed, or a bird half eaten. Ah, I thought, there will be no saving him: he’s doomed, and flies to his fate! And so it was: he turned abruptly hastened into the house again, shut the door behind him; and when I went in a while after to inform them that Earnshaw had come home rabid drunk, ready to pull the whole place about our ears (his ordinary frame of mind in that condition), I saw the quarrel had merely effected a closer intimacy—had broken the outworks of youthful timidity; and enabled them to forsake the disguise of friendship, and confess themselves lovers. Intelligence of Mr. Hindle/s arrival drove Linton speedily to his horse, and Catherine to her chamber. I went to hide little Hareton, and to take the shot out of the master’s fowling-piece, which he was fond of playing with in his insane excitement, to the hazard of the lives of any who provoked, or even attracted his notice too much; and I had hit upon the plan of removing it, that he might do less mischief if he did go the length of firing the gun. 命 CHAPTER 9 He entered, vociferating oaths dreadful to hear; and caught me in the act of stowing his son away in the kitchen cupboard. Hareton was impressed with a wholesome terror of encountering either his wild beast’s fondness or his madman’s rage; for in one he ran a chance of being squeezed and kissed to death, and in the other of being flung into the fire, or dashed against the wall; and the poor thing remained perfectly quiet wherever I chose to put him. “There, Fve found it out at last!” cried Hindleg pulling me back by the skin of my neck, like a dog. “By heaven and hell, Yz)u’ve sworn between you to murder that child! I know how it is, now, that he is always out of my way But, with the help of Satan, I shall make you swallow the carving-knife, Nelly! ydu needn’t laugh; for Fve just crammed Kenneth, head-downmost, in the Black-horse marsh; and two is the same as one—and I want to kill some of you: I shall have no rest till I do!,^ “But I don’t like the carving-knife, Mr. Hindley;” I answered, “it has been cutting red herrings. Ft rather be shot, if you please.M “Ybu’t rather be damned!” he said, “and so you shall. No law in England can hinder a man from keeping his house decent, and mine’s abominable! Open your mouth.” He held the knife in his hand, and pushed its point between my teeth: but, for my part, I was never much afraid of his vagaries. I spat out, and affirmed it tasted detestably—I would not take it on any account. “Oh!” said he, releasing me, “I see that hideous little villain is not Hareton: I beg your pardon, Nell. If it be, he deserves flaying alive for not running to welcome me, and for screaming as if I were a goblin. Unnatural cub, come hither! Pll teach thee to impose on a good-hearted, deluded father. Now; don’t you think the lad -70- CHAPTER 9 would be handsomer cropped? It makes a dog fiercer, and I love something fierce—get me a scissors—something fierce and trim! Besides, it’s infernal affectation—devilish conceit it is, to cherish our ears—we’re asses enough without them. Hush, child, hush! Well then, it is my darling! wisht, dry thy eyes一there’s a joy; kiss me. What! it won’t? Kiss me, Hareton! Damn thee, kiss me! By God, as if I would rear such a monster! As sure asFm living, Fll break the brat’s neck.” Poor Hareton was squalling and kicking in his father’s arms with all his might, and redoubled his yells when he carried him up- stairs and lifted him over the banister. I cried out that he would frighten the child into fits, and ran to rescue him. As I reached them, Hindley leant forward on the rails to listen to a noise below; almost forgetting what he had in his hands. “Who is that?” he asked, hearing some one approaching the stairs’-foot. I leant forward also, for the purpose of signing to Heathcliff^ whose step I recognised, not to come further; and, at the instant when my eye quitted Hareton, he gave a sudden spring, delivered himself from the careless grasp that held him, and fell. There was scarcely time to experience a thrill of horror before we saw that the little wretch was safe. Heathcliff arrived underneath just at the critical moment; by a natural impulse he arrested his descent, and setting him on his feet, looked up to discover the author of the accident. A miser who has parted with a lucky lottery ticket for five shillings, and finds next day he has lost in the bargain five thousand pounds, could not show a blanker countenance than he did on beholding the figure of Mr. Earnshaw above. It expressed, plainer than words could do, the intensest anguish at having made himself the instrument of thwarting his own revenge. Had it been dark, I daresay he would have tried to remedy the mistake by smashing Hareton’s skull on the steps; but, we witnessed his salvation; and I was presently below with my precious charge pressed to my heart. Hindley descended more leisurely; sobered and abashed. -71- Wuthering Heights “It is your fault, Ellen,” he said, “you should have kept him out of sight: you should have taken him from me! Is he injured anywhere?” “Injured!” I cried angrily “if he is not killed, he’ll be an idiot! Oh! I wonder his mother does not rise from her grave to see how you use him. ybu’re worse than a heathen—treating your own flesh and blood in that manner!M He attempted to touch the child, who, on finding himself with me, sobbed off his terror directly At the first finger his father laid on him, however, he shrieked again louder than before, and struggled as if he would go into convulsions. “Abu shall not meddle with him!” I continued, “He hates you— they all hate you—that’s the truth! A happy family you have; and a pretty state you’re come to!” “I shall come to a prettier, yet, Nelly;” laughed the misguided man, recovering his hardness. ‘At present, convey yourself and him away And hark you, Heathcliff! clear you too quite from my reach and hearing. I wouldn’t murder you to-night; unless, perhaps, I set the house on fire: but that’s as my fancy goes.” While saying this he took a pint bottle of brandy from the dresser, and poured some into a tumbler. “Nay; don’t!” I entreated, “Mr. Hindleg do take warning. Have mercy on this unfortunate boy, if you care nothing for yourself!” 'Any one will do better for him than I shall,” he answered. “Have mercy on your own soul!” I said, endeavouring to snatch the glass from his hand. “Not I! On the contrary I shall have great pleasure in sending it to perdition to punish its Maker,M exclaimed the blasphemer. “Here’s to its hearty damnation!” He drank the spirits and impatiently bade us go; terminating his command with a sequel of horrid imprecations too bad to repeat or remember. “It’s a pity he cannot kill himself with drink,” observed Heathcliffi muttering an echo of curses back when the door was shut. “He’s doing his very utmost; but his constitution defies him. -72- CHAPTER 9 Mr. Kenneth says he would wager his mare that he’ll outlive any man on this side Gimmerton, and go to the grave a hoary sinner; unless some happy chance out of the common course befall him.” I went into the kitchen, and sat down to lull my little lamb to sleep. Heathcliff^ as I thought, walked through to the barn. It turned out afterwards that he only got as far as the other side the settle, when he flung himself on a bench by the wall, removed from the fire and remained silent. I was rocking Hareton on my knee, and humming a song that began,— It was far in the night, and the bairnies grat, The mither beneath the mools heard that, when Miss Cathy who had listened to the hubbub from her room, put her head in, and whispered,一‘Are you alone, Nelly?,, wVes, Miss,” I replied. She entered and approached the hearth. I, supposing she was going to say something, looked up. The expression of her face seemed disturbed and anxious. Her lips were half asunder, as if she meant to speak, and she drew a breath; but it escaped in a sigh instead of a sentence. I resumed my song; not having forgotten her recent behaviour. “Where’s Heathcliff?” she said, interrupting me. ‘About his work in the stable,w was my answer. He did not contradict me; perhaps he had fallen into a doze. There followed another long pause, during which I perceived a drop or two trickle from Catherine’s cheek to the flags. Is she sorry for her shameful conduct?一I asked myself That will be a novelty: but she may come to the point—as she will—I sha’n’t help her! No, she felt small trouble regarding any subject, save her own concerns. “Oh, dear!” she cried at last, “I’m very unhappy!” ‘A pity” observed I. “Abu’re hard to please; so many friends and so few cares, and can’t make yourself content!” -73- Wuthering Heights “Nelly, will you keep a secret for me?” she pursued, kneeling down by me, and lifting her winsome eyes to my face with that sort of look which turns off bad temper, even when one has all the right in the world to indulge it. “Is it worth keeping?” I inquired, less sulkily uYes, and it worries me, and I must let it out! I want to know what I should do. To-day; Edgar Linton has asked me to marry him, and Pve given him an answer. No\^ before I tell you whether it was a consent or denial, you tell me which it ought to have been.” “Really Miss Catherine, how can I know?” I replied, “To be sure, considering the exhibition you performed in his presence this afternoon, I might say it would be wise to refuse him: since he asked you after that, he must either be hopelessly stupid or a venturesome fool.” “If you talk so, I won’t tell you any more,” she returned, peevishly rising to her feet. “I accepted him, Nelly Be quick, and say whether I was wrong!w “Ydu accepted him! Then what good is it discussing the matter? %u have pledged your word, and cannot retract.” “But say whether I should have done so~ o!” she exclaimed in an irritated tone; chafing her hands together, and frowning. “There are many things to be considered before that question can be answered properly,w I said, sententiously “First and foremost, do you love Mr. Edgar?” “Who can help it? Of course I do,” she answered. Then I put her through the following catechism: for a girl of twenty-two it was not injudicious. “Why do you love him, Miss Cathy?” “Nonsense, I do—that’s sufficient.,^ “By no means; you must say why?” “Wfell, because he is handsome, and pleasant to be with.” “Bad!” was my commentary 'And because he is young and cheerful.” -74- CHAPTER 9 "Bad, Still.,, ‘And because he loves me.” 4为系统(区域、负荷点)在系统状态下的切负荷量,MW。 (36)系统(区域、负荷点)电量不足期望值 EENS(expected energy not supplied) (MW ? h): (13-35) Psk (r) X CSk (r)dr (37) 系统(区域、负荷点)严重程度指标SKseverity index)(系统分): SI = X 60 total 其中,L,<>ul为系统(区域、负荷点)的总负荷,MW。 (38) 系统(区域、负荷点)供电可用率SACservice availability): SA=1-^NS 需要说明的是,基于不同的预测时间步长《进行指标计算,即可得到相应的时限类指标 (短期指标与长期指标)。 EENS = (13-36) (13-37) (13-38) total 13.4电力系统元件的运行可靠性模型 电力系统运行中,重要发电机的停运会导致系统频率严重下降以及其他发电机组的跳 闸,频率严重失控时甚至导致系统频率崩溃;重要输变电设备的停运会引起系统潮流转移, 416 第13章电力系统运行可靠性 从而诱发大面积停电事故。因此,基于设备历史运行情况及其在未来短时间内的运行条件, 预测设备及电网的短期可靠性水平,对于指导调度员做出正确的控制决策从而降低大停电 风险、提高电力系统的运行可靠性具有重要作用。 在电力系统规划中,常采用恒定的设备故障率来计算系统中长期的可靠性水平,因为这 个长期统计平均值是设备长期运行情况的反映,如 图13.4.1虚线所示。然而恒定的平均故障率无法 描述历史运行条件和未来运行条件对设备停运风 险和系统运行可靠性的影响。例如连锁故障,按照 常规的元件可靠性模型,连锁故障的发生概率是基 于统计平均值的单重故障概率的乘积,数值非常 小,应该是百年不遇的事故。然而近年来这类故障 时常发生,造成理论与实际的严重脱离。原因在于 元件的可靠性建模出了问题,元件的停运概率应该 随着系统运行条件的变化而改变,如图13. 4. 1实线 所示。 图13.4.1可靠性模型参数(虚线是 平均值) 元件的运行可靠性模型综合考虑了运行条件和研究的时间尺度对元件停运概率的影 响。根据元件不同停运模式的机理,可建立相应的停运模型,如保护动作致停运模型、偶然 失效模型和老化失效模型等。应根据运行可靠性评估的应用场景选用合适的模型。若各停 运模型反映的停运事件相互独立,那么可以根据式(13-39)所示的可靠性逻辑串联关系对 它们进行组合使用: Ptoui = 1 - II(1 - P>> (13-39) 其中,为元件总的停运概率;P,为第i种停运模式下元件的停运概率,例如保护动作致 停运概率、偶然失效概率、老化失效概率等;《为考虑的停运模式的个数。本节主要介绍元 件的保护动作致停运模型和偶然失效模型,老化失效模型可参阅文献[7]。 13. 4.1保护动作致停运模型 1.线路过负荷保护动作模型 过负荷跳闸所引起的元件相继断开是一类可造成大面积停电的连锁故障。输电线路、 变压器等电力设备都装设有过负荷保护装置,然而保护装置的触发值的误差使得保护动作 切除设备存在不确定性。 过负荷继电保护系统主要由保护电流互感器和继电保护装置构成。一方面,保护电流 互感器的电流测量值存在误差,误差范围由该电流互感器的准确级决定;另一方面,继电保 护装置的触发值也存在误差,国标《继电器及装置基本试验方法(GB/T 7261—2000)》给出 了继电器装置极限误差的试验方法,实际产品的极限误差在±6%左右。设整个保护系统存 在的触发电流值L误差为±ei,并服从均值为'_,标准差为a,,范围为[Zse.od-e,), Ul+e,)]的截尾正态分布,其密度函数为 Jset 茫[LetO(l —Si),Jsetod +£l)] Iset) * 1 「 ( ^set IsetO )~] t r T z -l \ t z i | ---- exp------- I, e L-lSetO(l — ei),I?eto(l+ei)」 I Off! 72^ L 2ffI 」 (13-40) 13.4电力系统元件的运行可靠性模型 417 a =(I)

准则,将系统运行状态分为健康、临界和风险 状态。健康状态是指系统能够正常供电(无元件过负荷,电压和频率均在允许范围内),且满 足N_1准则;临界状态是指系统能够正常供电,但不满足N—1准则;风险状态是指系统 无法正常供电,可能需要削减负荷。基于该状态划分,定义3个状态指标:健康状态概率、 临界状态概率和风险状态概率。 需要说明的是,状态类指标可以根据不同的需求,采用不同状态划分方法,例如包括正 常、警戒、紧急、极端紧急、恢复状态的5状态划分等。本书采用的3状态划分的优点是,它 与经典的5状态划分一样,考虑了确定性的N-1准则,有利于被调度部门和工程界所接 受,同时比5状态划分更简洁清晰。 (2) 程度类指标 为了量化系统可靠性,具体描述线路潮流、母线电压等运行安全约束的满足情况及可能 导致的切负荷后果,定义3个程度指标:裕度指标、越限指标和切负荷指标。如果系统处于 健康状态或临界状态,则进一步通过裕度指标反映系统和元件安全运行的概率和裕度。如 果系统处于风险状态,则进一步通过越限指标反映线路潮流和母线电压越限的可能性和程 度;并通过切负荷指标反映负荷损失的可能性和期望值。 (3) 层次类指标 根据所关心的区域和目标不同,定义4个层次指标:系统指标、区域指标、负荷点指标 和元件指标。 13.3电力系统运行可靠性指标体系 411 (4)时限类指标 根据所关注的时间框架不同,定义短期指标与长期指标。短期指标的时间框架一般为 分钟或小时级;长期指标包括日指标、月指标、年指标等。 具体指标如表13.3.2所示,指标的计算公式如下。 表13.3.2运行可靠性指标体系 指 标 系统层 区域层 负荷点 元件层 状态类指标 健康状态概率 V V 临界状态概率 V V 风险状态概率 V V 程度类 指标 裕度 指标 潮流安全概率 V V V 潮流安全裕度 V V V 电压安全概率 V V V 电压上限安全裕度 V V V 电压下限安全裕度 V V V 潮流和电压安全概率 V V 越限 指标 潮流过载概率 V V V 潮流过载期望值 V V V 电压越限概率 V V V 电压越上限期望值 V 7 V 电压越下限期望值 V 7 V 潮流或电压越限概率 V V 切负荷 指标 潮流过载导致切负荷的概率 V V V V 潮流过载导致切负荷的期望值 V V V V 电压越限导致切负荷的概率 V V V 电压越限导致切负荷的期望值 V V V 切负荷概率 V 7 V 电力不足期望值 V V 电量不足期望值 V V V 严重程度指标 V V V 供电可用率 V V V 注:基于不同的预测时间z进行指标计算.即可得到相应的时限类指标(短期指标与长期指标)。 13.3.1运行可靠性状态类指标 (1) 健康状态概率 PHS(probability of healthy state): PHS= Sh ⑴ (13-1) Sk^DH 其中为系统状态s,在z时刻的概率;为处于健康状态的系统状态集合。 (2) 临界状态概率 PMS(probability of marginal state): PMS= 2 pst 为系统(区域、负荷点)在系统状态下的切负荷量,MW。 (36)系统(区域、负荷点)电量不足期望值 EENS(expected energy not supplied) (MW ? h): (13-35) Psk (r) X CSk (r)dr (37) 系统(区域、负荷点)严重程度指标SKseverity index)(系统分): SI = X 60 total 其中,L,<>ul为系统(区域、负荷点)的总负荷,MW。 (38) 系统(区域、负荷点)供电可用率SACservice availability): SA=1-^NS 需要说明的是,基于不同的预测时间步长《进行指标计算,即可得到相应的时限类指标 (短期指标与长期指标)。 EENS = (13-36) (13-37) (13-38) total 13.4电力系统元件的运行可靠性模型 电力系统运行中,重要发电机的停运会导致系统频率严重下降以及其他发电机组的跳 闸,频率严重失控时甚至导致系统频率崩溃;重要输变电设备的停运会引起系统潮流转移, 416 第13章电力系统运行可靠性 从而诱发大面积停电事故。因此,基于设备历史运行情况及其在未来短时间内的运行条件, 预测设备及电网的短期可靠性水平,对于指导调度员做出正确的控制决策从而降低大停电 风险、提高电力系统的运行可靠性具有重要作用。 在电力系统规划中,常采用恒定的设备故障率来计算系统中长期的可靠性水平,因为这 个长期统计平均值是设备长期运行情况的反映,如 图13.4.1虚线所示。然而恒定的平均故障率无法 描述历史运行条件和未来运行条件对设备停运风 险和系统运行可靠性的影响。例如连锁故障,按照 常规的元件可靠性模型,连锁故障的发生概率是基 于统计平均值的单重故障概率的乘积,数值非常 小,应该是百年不遇的事故。然而近年来这类故障 时常发生,造成理论与实际的严重脱离。原因在于 元件的可靠性建模出了问题,元件的停运概率应该 随着系统运行条件的变化而改变,如图13. 4. 1实线 所示。 图13.4.1可靠性模型参数(虚线是 平均值) 元件的运行可靠性模型综合考虑了运行条件和研究的时间尺度对元件停运概率的影 响。根据元件不同停运模式的机理,可建立相应的停运模型,如保护动作致停运模型、偶然 失效模型和老化失效模型等。应根据运行可靠性评估的应用场景选用合适的模型。若各停 运模型反映的停运事件相互独立,那么可以根据式(13-39)所示的可靠性逻辑串联关系对 它们进行组合使用: Ptoui = 1 - II(1 - P>> (13-39) 其中,为元件总的停运概率;P,为第i种停运模式下元件的停运概率,例如保护动作致 停运概率、偶然失效概率、老化失效概率等;《为考虑的停运模式的个数。本节主要介绍元 件的保护动作致停运模型和偶然失效模型,老化失效模型可参阅文献[7]。 13. 4.1保护动作致停运模型 1.线路过负荷保护动作模型 过负荷跳闸所引起的元件相继断开是一类可造成大面积停电的连锁故障。输电线路、 变压器等电力设备都装设有过负荷保护装置,然而保护装置的触发值的误差使得保护动作 切除设备存在不确定性。 过负荷继电保护系统主要由保护电流互感器和继电保护装置构成。一方面,保护电流 互感器的电流测量值存在误差,误差范围由该电流互感器的准确级决定;另一方面,继电保 护装置的触发值也存在误差,国标《继电器及装置基本试验方法(GB/T 7261—2000)》给出 了继电器装置极限误差的试验方法,实际产品的极限误差在±6%左右。设整个保护系统存 在的触发电流值L误差为±ei,并服从均值为'_,标准差为a,,范围为[Zse.od-e,), Ul+e,)]的截尾正态分布,其密度函数为 Jset 茫[LetO(l —Si),Jsetod +£l)] Iset) * 1 「 ( ^set IsetO )~] t r T z -l \ t z i | ---- exp------- I, e L-lSetO(l — ei),I?eto(l+ei)」 I Off! 72^ L 2ffI 」 (13-40) 13.4电力系统元件的运行可靠性模型 417 a =(I) eauty! I should scarcely have known you: you look like a lady now Isabella Linton is not to be compared with her, is she, Frances?” “Isabella has not her natural advantages,w replied his wife, “but she must mind and not grow wild again here. Ellen, help Miss Catherine off with her things—Stay dear, you will disarrange your curls—let me untie your hat.” I removed the habit, and there shone forth beneath a grand plaid silk frock, white trousers, and burnished shoes; and, while her eyes sparkled joyfully when the dogs came bounding up to welcome her, she dared hardly touch them lest they should fawn upon her splendid garments. She kissed me gently: I was all flour making the Christmas cake, and it would not have done to give me a hug; and then she looked round for Heathcliff Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw watched anxiously their meeting; thinking it would enable them to judge, in some measure, what grounds they had for hoping to succeed in separating the two friends. Heathcliff was hard to discover, at first. If he were careless, -49- Wuthering Heights and uncared for, before Catherine’s absence, he had been ten times more so since. Nobody but I even did him the kindness to call him a dirty boy and bid him wash himself once a week; and children of his age seldom have a natural pleasure in soap and water. Therefore, not to mention his clothes, which had seen three months, service in mire and dust, and his thick uncombed hair, the surface of his face and hands was dismally beclouded. He might well skulk behind the settle, on beholding such a bright, graceful damsel enter the house, instead of a rough-headed counterpart of himself^ as he expected. “Is Heathcliff not here?” she demanded, pulling off her gloves, and displaying fingers wonderfully whitened with doing nothing and staying indoors. “Heathcliff^ you may come forward/5 cried Mr. Hindley enjoying his discomfiture, and gratified to see what a forbidding young blackguard he would be compelled to present himself “Ybu may come and wish Miss Catherine welcome, like the other servants.” Cathy catching a glimpse of her friend in his concealment, flew to embrace him; she bestowed seven or eight kisses on his cheek within the second, and then stopped, and drawing back, burst into a laugh, exclaiming, “Why how very black and cross you look! and how—how funny and grim! But that’s because Fm used to Edgar and Isabella Linton. Well, Heathcliff^ have you forgotten me?” She had some reason to put the question, for shame and pride threw double gloom over his countenance, and kept him immovable. “Shake hands, Heathcliff/’ said Mr. Earnshaw condescendingly; “once in a way that is permitted.” “I shall not,” replied the boy finding his tongue at last; “I shall not stand to be laughed at. I shall not bear it!” And he would have broken from the circle, but Miss Cathy seized him again. “I did not mean to laugh at you,” she said, “I could not hinder myself: Heathcliff^ shake hands at least! What are you sulky for? It was only that you looked odd. If you wash your face and brush your hair, it will be all right: but you are so dirty!” -50- CHAPTER 7 She gazed concernedly at the dusky fingers she held in her own, and also at her dress; which she feared had gained no embellishment from its contact with his. “Abu neednY have touched me!” he answered, following her eye and snatching away his hand. “I shall be as dirty as I please: and I like to be dirty and I will be dirty” With that he dashed headforemost out of the room, amid the merriment of the master and mistress, and to the serious disturbance of Catherine; who could not comprehend how her remarks should have produced such an exhibition of bad temper. After playing lady’s maid to the new-comer, and putting my cakes in the oven, and making the house and kitchen cheerful with great fires, befitting Christmas-eve, I prepared to sit down and amuse myself by singing carols, all alone; regardless of Joseph’s affirmations that he considered the merry tunes I chose as next door to songs. He had retired to private prayer in his chamber, and Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw were engaging Miss/s attention by sundry gay trifles bought for her to present to the little Lintons, as an acknowledgment of their kindness. They had invited them to spend the morrow at Wuthering Heights, and the invitation had been accepted, on one condition: Mrs. Linton begged that her darlings might be kept carefully apart from that “naughty swearing boy\ Under these circumstances I remained solitary I smelt the rich scent of the heating spices; and admired the shining kitchen utensils, the polished clock, decked in holly the silver mugs ranged on a tray ready to be filled with mulled ale for supper; and above all, the speckless purity of my particular care一the scoured and well- swept floor. I gave due inward applause to every object, and then I remembered how old Earnshaw used to come in when all was tidied, and call me a cant lass, and slip a shilling into my hand as a Christmas-box; and from that I went on to think of his fondness for Heathcliff^ and his dread lest he should suffer neglect after death had removed him: and that naturally led me to consider the poor lad’s situation now; and from singing I changed my mind to -51- Wuthering Heights crying. It struck me soon, however, there would be more sense in endeavouring to repair some of his wrongs than shedding tears over them: I got up and walked into the court to seek him. He was not far; I found him smoothing the glossy coat of the new pony in the stable, and feeding the other beasts, according to custom. “Make haste, Heathcliff!” I said, uthe kitchen is so comfortable; and Joseph is up-stairs: make haste, and let me dress you smart before Miss Cathy comes out, and then you can sit together, with the whole hearth to yourselves, and have a long chatter till bedtime.” He proceeded with his task, and never turned his head towards me. “Come—are you coming?^^ I continued, “There’s a little cake for each of you, nearly enough; and you’ll need halfan-hour’s donning.^^ I waited five minutes, but getting no answer left him. Catherine supped with her brother and sister-in-law: Joseph and I joined at an unsociable meal, seasoned with reproofs on one side and sauciness on the other. His cake and cheese remained on the table all night for the fairies. He managed to continue work till nine o’clock,and then marched dumb and dour to his chamber. Cathy sat up late, having a world of things to order for the reception of her new friends: she came into the kitchen once to speak to her old one; but he was gone, and she only stayed to ask what was the matter with him, and then went back. In the morning he rose early; and, as it was a holiday; carried his ill-humour onto the moors; not re- appearing till the family were departed for church. Fasting and reflection seemed to have brought him to a better spirit. He hung about me for a while, and having screwed up his courage, exclaimed abruptly~~'‘Nelly make me decent,Fm going to be good”. “High time, Heathcliff/’ I said, “you have grieved Catherine: she’s sorry she ever came home, I daresay! It looks as if you envied her, because she is more thought of than you.” The notion of envying Catherine was incomprehensible to him, but the notion of grieving her he understood clearly enough. -52 - CHAPTER 7 “Did she say she was grieved?” he inquired, looking very serious. “She cried when I told her you were off again this morning.w “Wfell, I cried last night,M he returned, “and I had more reason to cry than she.” uYes: you had the reason of going to bed with a proud heart and an empty stomach,M said I. “Proud people breed sad sorrows for themselves. But, if you be ashamed of your touchiness, you must ask pardon, mind, when she comes in. Vou must go up and offer to kiss her, and say~~you know best what to say; only do it heartily and not as if you thought her converted into a stranger by her grand dress. And now, though I have dinner to get ready Uli steal time to arrange you so that Edgar Linton shall look quite a doll beside you: and that he does. Vou are younger, and yet, Fll be bound, you are taller and twice as broad across the shoulders; you could knock him down in a twinkling; don’t you feel that you could?” Heathcliff’s face brightened a moment; then it was overcast afresh, and he sighed. “But, Nelly if I knocked him down twenty times, that wouldn’t make him less handsome or me more so. I wish I had light hair and a fair skin, and was dressed and behaved as well, and had a chance of being as rich as he will be!” ‘And cried for mamma at every turn,” I added, “and trembled if a country lad heaved his fist against you, and sat at home all day for a shower of rain. Oh, Heathcliffi you are showing a poor spirit! Come to the glass, and I’ll let you see what you should wish. Do you mark those two lines between your eyes; and those thick brows, that, instead of rising arched, sink in the middle; and that couple of black fiends, so deeply buried, who never open their windows boldly; but lurk glinting under them, like deviFs spies? Wish and learn to smooth away the surly wrinkles, to raise your lids frankly; and change the fiends to confident, innocent angels, suspecting and doubting nothing, and always seeing friends where they are not sure of foes. Don’t get the expression of a vicious cur -53- Wuthering Heights that appears to know the kicks it gets are its desert, and yet hates all the world, as well as the kicker, for what it suffers.” “In other words, I must wish for Edgar Lintorfs great blue eyes and even forehead,w he replied. “I do—and that won’t help me to them.,, t6A good heart will help you to a bonny face, my lad,” I continued, “if you were a regular black; and a bad one will turn the bonniest into something worse than ugly And now that we’ve done washing, and combing, and sulking—tell me whether you don’t think yourself rather handsome? I’ll tell you, I do. Ybu’re fit for a prince in disguise. Who knows but your father was Emperor of China, and your mother an Indian queen, each of them able to buy up, with one week’s income, Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange together? And you were kidnapped by wicked sailors and brought to England. Were I in your place, I would frame high notions of my birth; and the thoughts of what I was should give me courage and dignity to support the oppressions of a little farmerr’ So I chattered on; and Heathcliff gradually lost his frown and began to look quite pleasant, when all at once our conversation was interrupted by a rumbling sound moving up the road and entering the court. He ran to the window and I to the door, just in time to behold the two Lintons descend from the family carriage, smothered in cloaks and furs, and the Earnshaws dismount from their horses: they often rode to church in winter. Catherine took a hand of each of the children, and brought them into the house and set them before the fire, which quickly put colour into their white faces. I urged my companion to hasten now and show his amiable humour, and he willingly obeyed; but ill luck would have it that, as he opened the door leading from the kitchen on one side, Hindley opened it on the other. They met, and the master, irritated at seeing him clean and cheerful, or, perhaps, eager to keep his promise to Mrs. Linton, shoved him back with a sudden thrust, and angrily bade Joseph “keep the fellow out of the room—send him into the -54 - CHAPTER 7 garret till dinner is over. He’ll be cramming his fingers in the tarts and stealing the fruit, if left alone with them a minute.” “Nay sir,” I could not avoid answering, “he’ll touch nothing, not he: and I suppose he must have his share of the dainties as well as we.” “He shall have his share of my hand, if I catch him downstairs till dark,” cried Hindleg “Begone, you vagabond! What! you are attempting the coxcomb, are you? Wait till I get hold of those elegant locks—see if I won’t pull them a bit longer!” “They are long enough already,M observed Master Linton, peeping from the doorway; “I wonder they don’t make his head ache. It’s like a colt’s mane over his eyes!” He ventured this remark without any intention to insult; but Heathcliff’s violent nature was not prepared to endure the appearance of impertinence from one whom he seemed to hate, even then, as a rival. He seized a tureen of hot apple sauce, the first thing that came under his gripe, and dashed it full against the speaker’s face and neck; who instantly commenced a lament that brought Isabella and Catherine hurrying to the place. Mr. Earnshaw snatched up the culprit directly and conveyed him to his chamber; where, doubtless, he administered a rough remedy to cool the fit of passion, for he reappeared red and breathless. I got the dishcloth, and rather spitefully scrubbed Edgar’s nose and mouth, affirming it served him right for meddling. His sister began weeping to go home, and Cathy stood by confounded, blushing for all. “Ybu should not have spoken to him!,, she expostulated with Master Linton. “He was in a bad temper, and now Ydu’ve spoilt your visit; and he’ll be flogged: I hate him to be flogged! I can’t eat my dinner. Why did you speak to him, Edgar?” “I didn’t,” sobbed the youth, escaping from my hands, and finishing the remainder of the purification with his cambric pocket-handkerchief “I promised mamma that I wouldn’t say one word to him, and I didn’t.” "'Well, don’t cry;” replied Catherine, contemptuously; “you’re -55- Wuthering Heights not killed. Don’t make more mischief; my brother is coming: be quiet! Hush, Isabella! Has anybody hurt you?J, “There, there, children—to your seats!” cried Hindley bustling in. “That brute of a lad has warmed me nicely Next time, Master Edgar, take the law into your own fists一it will give you an appetite!” The little party recovered its equanimity at sight of the fragrant feast. They were hungry after their ride, and easily consoled, since no real harm had befallen them. Mr. Earnshaw carved bountiful platefuls, and the mistress made them merry with lively talk. I waited behind her chair, and was pained to behold Catherine, with dry eyes and an indifferent air, commence cutting up the wing of a goose before her. ‘An unfeeling child,” I thought to myselfj “how lightly she dismisses her old playmate’s troubles. I could not have imagined her to be so selfish.” She lifted a mouthful to her lips: then she set it down again: her cheeks flushed, and the tears gushed over them. She slipped her fork to the floor, and hastily dived under the cloth to conceal her emotion. I did not call her unfeeling long; for I perceived she was in purgatory throughout the day and wearying to find an opportunity of getting by herselfj or paying a visit to Heathcliffj who had been locked up by the master: as I discovered, on endeavouring to introduce to him a private mess of victuals. In the evening we had a dance. Cathy begged that he might be liberated then, as Isabella Linton had no partner: her entreaties were vain, and I was appointed to supply the deficiency We got rid of all gloom in the excitement of the exercise, and our pleasure was increased by the arrival of the Gimmerton band, mustering fifteen strong: a trumpet, a trombone, clarionets, bassoons, French horns, and a bass viol, besides singers. They go the rounds of all the respectable houses, and receive contributions every Christmas, and we esteemed it a first-rate treat to hear them. After the usual carols had been sung, we set them to songs and glees. Mrs. Earnshaw loved the music, and so they gave us plenty Catherine loved it too: but she said it sounded sweetest at -56- CHAPTER 7 the top of the steps, and she went up in the dark: I followed. They shut the house door below, never noting our absence, it was so full of people. She made no stay at the stairs’-head,but mounted farther, to the garret where Heathcliff was confined, and called him. He stubbornly declined answering for a while: she persevered, and finally persuaded him to hold communion with her through the boards. I let the poor things converse unmolested, till I supposed the songs were going to cease, and the singers to get some refreshment: then I clambered up the ladder to warn her. Instead of finding her outside, I heard her voice within. The little monkey had crept by the skylight of one garret, along the roofj into the skylight of the other, and it was with the utmost difficulty I could coax her out again. When she did come, Heathcliff came with her, and she insisted that I should take him into the kitchen, as my fellow-servant had gone to a neighbour’s, to be removed from the sound of our “devil’s psalmody”,as it pleased him to call it. I told them I intended by no means to encourage their tricks: but as the prisoner had never broken his fast since yesterday’s dinner, I would wink at his cheating Mr. Hindley that once. He went down: I set him a stool by the fire, and offered him a quantity of good things: but he was sick and could eat little, and my attempts to entertain him were thrown away He leant his two elbows on his knees, and his chin on his hands, and remained wrapt in dumb meditation. On my inquiring the subject of his thoughts, he answered gravely—“I’m trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back. I don’t care how long I wait, if I can only do it at last. I hope he will not die before I do”! “For shame, Heathcliff!” said I. “It is for God to punish wicked people; we should learn to forgive.” “No, God won’t have the satisfaction that I shall,” he returned, “I only wish I knew the best way! Let me alone, and I’ll plan it out: while Fm thinking of that I don’t feel pain.” “But, Mr. Lockwood, I forget these tales cannot divert you. I’m annoyed how I should dream of chattering on at such a rate; -57- Wuthering Heights and your gruel cold, and you nodding for bed! I could have told Heathcliff’s history all that you need hear, in half a dozen words.” 木 木* 木 本 本 Thus interrupting herself the housekeeper rose, and proceeded to lay aside her sewing; but I felt incapable of moving from the hearth, and I was very far from nodding. “Sit still, Mrs. Dean,” I cried; “do sit still another half hour. %u’ve done just right to tell the story leisurely That is the method I like; and you must finish it in the same style. I am interested in every character you have mentioned, more or less.” “The clock is on the stroke of eleven, sir.” “No matter一I’m not accustomed to go to bed in the long hours. One or two is early enough for a person who lies till ten.” shouldn’t lie till ten. There’s the very prime of the morning gone long before that time. A person who has not done one-half his da/s work by ten o’clock,runs a chance of leaving the other half undone.” “Nevertheless, Mrs. Dean, resume your chair; because to- morrow I intend lengthening the night till afternoon. I prognosticate for myself an obstinate cold, at least.” “I hope not, sir. Well, you must allow me to leap over some three years; during that space Mrs. Earnshaw—” “No, no, Fll allow nothing of the sort! Are you acquainted with the mood of mind in which, if you were seated alone, and the cat licking its kitten on the rug before you, you would watch the operation so intently that puss’s neglect of one ear would put you seriously out of temper?” aA terribly lazy mood, I should say” “On the contrary a tiresomely active one. It is mine, at present; and, therefore, continue minutely I perceive that people in these regions acquire over people in towns the value that a spider in a dungeon does over a spider in a cottage, to their various occupants; and yet the deepened attraction is not entirely owing to the situation of the looker-on. They do live more in earnest, -58- CHAPTER 7 more in themselves, and less in surface change, and frivolous external things. I could fancy a love for life here almost possible; and I was a fixed unbeliever in any love of a year’s standing. One state resembles setting a hungry man down to a single dish, on which he may concentrate his entire appetite and do it justice; the other, introducing him to a table laid out by French cooks: he can perhaps extract as much enjoyment from the whole; but each part is a mere atom in his regard and remembrance.M “Oh! here we are the same as anywhere else, when you get to know us,” observed Mrs. Dean, somewhat puzzled at my speech. “Excuse me,” I responded, “you,my good friend, are a striking evidence against that assertion. Excepting a few provincialisms of slight consequence, you have no marks of the manners which I am habituated to consider as peculiar to your class. I am sure you have thought a great deal more than the generality of servants think. You have been compelled to cultivate your reflective faculties for want of occasions for frittering your life away in silly trifles.” Mrs. Dean laughed. “I certainly esteem myself a steady; reasonable kind of body;” she said, “not exactly from living among the hills and seeing one set of faces, and one series of actions, from year’s end to year’s end; but I have undergone sharp discipline, which has taught me wisdom; and then, I have read more than you would fancy; Mr. Lockwood. %u could not open a book in this library that I have not looked into, and got something out of also: unless it be that range of Greek and Latin, and that of French; and those I know one from another: it is as much as you can expect of a poor man’s daughter. However, if I am to follow my story in true gossip’s fashion, I had better go on; and instead of leaping three years, I will be content to pass to the next summer—the summer of 1778, that is nearly twenty-three years ago.” -5少 CHAPTER 8 On the morning of a fine June day my first bonny little nursling, and the last of the ancient Earnshaw stock, was born. We were busy with the hay in a far-away field, when the girl that usually brought our breakfasts came running an hour too soon across the meadow and up the lane, calling me as she ran. “Oh, such a grand bairn!” she panted out, “The finest lad that ever breathed! But the doctor says missis must go: he says she’s been in a consumption these many months. I heard him tell Mr. Hindley: and now she has nothing to keep her, and she’ll be dead before winter, ^ou must come home directly Vbu’re to nurse it, Nelly: to feed it with sugar and milk, and take care of it day and night. I wish I were you, because it will be all yours when there is no missis!” “But is she very I asked, flinging down my rake and tying my bonnet. “I guess she is; yet she looks bravely;” replied the girl, “and she talks as if she thought of living to see it grow a man. She’s out of her head for joy, it’s such a beauty! If I were her I’m certain I should not die: I should get better at the bare sight of it, in spite of Kenneth. I was fairly mad at him. Dame Archer brought the cherub down to master, in the house, and his face just began to light up, then the old croaker steps forward, and says he— “Earnshax^ it’s a blessing your wife has been spared to leave you this son. When she came, I felt convinced we shouldn’t keep her long; and now, I must tell you, the winter will probably finish her. Don’t take on, and fret about it too much: it can’t be helped. And besides, you should have known better than to choose such a rush of a lass”! -6o- CHAPTER 8 "And what did the master answer?” I inquired. “I think he swore: but I didn’t mind him, I was straining to see the bairn,” and she bc^gan again to describe it rapturously I, as zealous as herself^ hurried eagerly home to admire, on my part; though I was very sad for Hindley’s sake. He had room in his heart only for two idols—his wife and himself: he doted on both, and adored one, and I couldn’t conceive how he would bear the loss. When we got to Wuthering Heights, there he stood at the front door; and, as I passed in, I asked, “how was the baby?” “Nearly ready to run about, Nell!” he replied, putting on a cheerful smile. 'And the mistress?” I ventured to inquire; “the doctor says she’s—” “Damn the doctor!he interrupted, reddening, “Frances is quite right: she’ll be perfectly well by this time next week. Are you going up-stairs? will you tell her that Pll come, if she’ll promise not to talk. I left her because she would not hold her tongue; and she must—tell her Mr. Kenneth says she must be quiet.” I delivered this message to Mrs. Earnshaw; she seemed in flighty spirits, and replied merrily “I hardly spoke a word, Ellen, and there he has gone out twice, crying. Well, say I promise I won’t speak: but that does not bind me not to laugh at him!” Poor soul! Till within a week of her death that gay heart never failed her; and her husband persisted doggedly; nay, furiously; in affirming her health improved every day When Kenneth warned him that his medicines were useless at that stage of the malady and he needn’t put him to further expense by attending her, he retorted, “I know you need not—she’s well—she does not want any more attendance from you! She never was in a consumption. It was a fever; and it is gone: her pulse is as slow as mine nox^ and her cheek as cool.” He told his wife the same story; and she seemed to believe him; but one night, while leaning on his shoulder, in the act of -6l- Wuthering Heights saying she thought she should be able to get up to-morrow; a fit of coughing took her—a very slight one—he raised her in his arms; she put her two hands about his neck, her face changed, and she was dead. As the girl had anticipated, the child Hareton fell wholly into my hands. Mr. Earnshaw; provided he saw him healthy and never heard him cry; was contented, as far as regarded him. For himself, he grew desperate: his sorrow was of that kind that will not lament. He neither wept nor prayed; he cursed and defied: execrated God and man, and gave himself up to reckless dissipation. The servants could not bear his tyrannical and evil conduct long: Joseph and I were the only two that would stay I had not the heart to leave my charge; and besides, you knov^ I had been his foster-sister, and excused his behaviour more readily than a stranger would. Joseph remained to hector over tenants and labourers; and because it was his vocation to be where he had plenty of wickedness to reprove. The master’s bad ways and bad companions formed a pretty example for Catherine and HeathclifE His treatment of the latter was enough to make a fiend of a saint. And, truly it appeared as if the lad were possessed of something diabolical at that period. He delighted to witness Hindley degrading himself past redemption; and became daily more notable for savage sullenness and ferocity I could not half tell what an infernal house we had. The curate dropped calling, and nobody decent came near us, at last; unless Edgar Linton’s visits to Miss Cathy might be an exception. At fifteen she was the queen of the country-side; she had no peer; and she did turn out a haughty headstrong creature! I own I did not like her, after infancy was past; and I vexed her frequently by trying to bring down her arrogance: she never took an aversion to me, though. She had a wondrous constancy to old attachments: even Heathcliff kept his hold on her affections unalterably; and young Linton, with all his superiority; found it difficult to make an equally deep impression. He was my late master: that is his -62- CHAPTER 8 portrait over the fireplace. It used to hang on one side, and his wife’s on the other; but hers has been removed, or else you might see something of what she was. Can you make that out? Mrs. Dean raised the candle, and I discerned a soft-featured face, exceedingly resembling the young lady at the Heights, but more pensive and amiable in expression. It formed a sweet picture. The long light hair curled slightly on the temples; the eyes were large and serious; the figure almost too graceful. I did not marvel how Catherine Earnshaw could forget her first friend for such an individual. I marvelled much how he, with a mind to correspond with his person, could fancy my idea of Catherine Earnshaw 4A very agreeable portrait,M I observed to the house-keeper, “Is it like?" “Yes,” she answered, “but he looked better when he was animated; that is his everyday countenance: he wanted spirit in general.” Catherine had kept up her acquaintance with the Lintons since her five-weeks’ residence among them; and as she had no temptation to show her rough side in their company and had the sense to be ashamed of being rude where she experienced such invariable courtesy; she imposed unwittingly on the old lady and gentleman by her ingenious cordiality; gained the admiration of Isabella, and the heart and soul of her brother: acquisitions that flattered her from the first—for she was full of ambition—and led her to adopt a double character without exactly intending to deceive any one. In the place where she heard HeathclifF termed a “vulgar young ruffian” and “worse than a brute”,she took care not to act like him; but at home she had small inclination to practise politeness that would only be laughed at, and restrain an unruly nature when it would bring her neither credit nor praise. Mr. Edgar seldom mustered courage to visit Wuthering Heights openly He had a terror of Earnshaw’s reputation, and shrunk from encountering him; and yet he was always received with our -63- Wuthering Heights best attempts at civility: the master himself avoided offending him, knowing why he came; and if he could not be gracious, kept out of the way I rather think his appearance there was distasteful to Catherine; she was not artful, never played the coquette, and had evidently an objection to her two friends meeting at all; for when Heathcliff expressed contempt of Linton in his presence, she could not half coincide, as she did in his absence; and when Linton evinced disgust and antipathy to Heathcliffi she dared not treat his sentiments with indifference, as if depreciation of her playmate were of scarcely any consequence to her. Fve had many a laugh at her perplexities and untold troubles, which she vainly strove to hide from my mockery That sounds ill-natured: but she was so proud it became really impossible to pity her distresses, till she should be chastened into more humility She did bring herself finally to confess, and to confide in me: there was not a soul else that she might fashion into an adviser. Mr. Hindley had gone from home one afternoon, and Heathcliff presumed to give himself a holiday on the strength of it. He had reached the age of sixteen then, I think, and without having bad features, or being deficient in intellect, he contrived to convey an impression of inward and outward repulsiveness that his present aspect retains no traces o£ In the first place, he had by that time lost the benefit of his early education: continual hard work, begun soon and concluded late, had extinguished any curiosity he once possessed in pursuit of knowledge, and any love for books or learning. His childhood’s sense of superiority; instilled into him by the favours of old Mr. Earnshaw; was faded away He struggled long to keep up an equality with Catherine in her studies, and yielded with poignant though silent regret: but he yielded completely; and there was no prevailing on him to take a step in the way of moving upward, when he found he must, necessarily; sink beneath his former level. Then personal appearance sympathised with mental deterioration: he acquired a slouching gait and ignoble look; his naturally reserved disposition -6个 CHAPTER 8 was exaggerated into an almost idiotic excess of unsociable moroseness; and he took a grim pleasure, apparentlj; in exciting the aversion rather than the esteem of his few acquaintances. Catherine and he were constant companions still at his seasons of respite from labour; but he had ceased to express his fondness for her in words, and recoiled with angry suspicion from her girlish caresses, as if conscious there could be no gratification in lavishing such marks of affection on him. On the before-named occasion he came into the house to announce his intention of doing nothing, while I was assisting Miss Cathy to arrange her dress: she had not reckoned on his taking it into his head to be idle; and imagining she would have the whole place to herselfj she managed, by some means, to inform Mr. Edgar of her brother’s absence, and was then preparing to receive him. “Cathy; are you busy this afternoon?” asked Heathcliffi ‘Are you going anywhere?” “No, it is raining/5 she answered. “Why have you that silk frock on, then?” he said, “Nobody coming here, I hope?” “Not that I know of/’ stammered Miss, “but you should be in the field no\^ Heathcliff It is an hour past dinnertime: I thought you were gone.” “Hindley does not often free us from his accursed presence/ observed the boy; “I’ll not work any more to-day: I’ll stay with you.” “Oh,but Joseph will she suggested, “you’d better go!” ‘Joseph is loading lime on the further side of Penistone Crags; it will take him till dark, and he’ll never know” So, saying, he lounged to the fire, and sat down. Catherine reflected an instant, with knitted brows—she found it needful to smooth the way for an intrusion. “Isabella and Edgar Linton talked of calling this afternoon,M she said, at the conclusion of a minute’s silence, it rains, I hardly expect them; but they may come, and if they do, you run the risk of being scolded for no good.” -65- Wuthering Heights “Order Ellen to say you are engaged, Cathy” he persisted, “don’t turn me out for those pitiful, silly friends of yours! I’m on the point, sometimes, of complaining that they—but I’ll not—” “That they what?” cried Catherine, gazing at him with a troubled countenance. “Oh, Nelly!” she added petulantly; jerking her head away from my hands, “Vdu’ve combed my hair quite out of curl! That’s enough; let me alone. What are you on the point of complaining about, Heathcliff?” “Nothing~only look at the almanack on that wall;” he pointed to a framed sheet hanging near the window; and continued, “The crosses are for the evenings you have spent with the Lintons, the dots for those spent with me. Do you see? Fve marked every day” uYes—very foolish: as if I took notice!” replied Catherine, in a peevish tone. ‘And where is the sense of that?” “lb show that I do take notice,” said Heathcliff ‘And should I always be sitting with you?” she demanded, growing more irritated. “What good do I get? What do you talk about? You might be dumb, or a baby for anything you say to amuse me, or for anything you do, either!” Uybu never told me before that I talked too little, or that you disliked my company Cathy!,, exclaimed Heathcliff, in much agitation. “It’s no company at all, when people know nothing and say nothing,n she muttered. Her companion rose up, but he hadn’t time to express his feelings further, for a horse’s feet were heard on the flags, and having knocked gently young Linton entered, his face brilliant with delight at the unexpected summon she had received. Doubtless Catherine marked the difference between her friends, as one came in and the other went out. The contrast resembled what you see in exchanging a bleak, hilly coal country for a beautiful fertile valley; and his voice and greeting were as opposite as his aspect. He had a sweet, low manner of speaking, and pronounced his words as you do: that’s less gruff than we talk here, and softer. -66- CHAPTER 8 “I’m not come too soon, am I?” he said, casting a look at me: I had begun to wipe the plate, and tidy some drawers at the far end in the dresser. “No,” answered Catherine. “What are you doing there, Nelly?,, “My work, Miss,” I replied. (Mr. Hindley had given me directions to make a third party in any private visits Linton chose to pay) She stepped behind me and whispered crossly “THake yourself and your dusters off; when company are in the house, servants don’t commence scouring and cleaning in the room where they are!” “It’s a good opportunity now that master is away” I answered aloud, “he hates me to be fidgeting over these things in his presence. Fm sure Mr. Edgar will excuse me.” “I hate you to be fidgeting in my presence,exclaimed the young lady imperiously not allowing her guest time to speak: she had failed to recover her equanimity since the little dispute with HeathclifE “I’m sorry for it, Miss Catherine,n was my response; and I proceeded assiduously with my occupation. She, supposing Edgar could not see her, snatched the cloth from my hand, and pinched me, with a prolonged wrench, very spitefully on the arm. I’ve said I did not love her, and rather relished mortifying her vanity now and then: besides, she hurt me extremely; so I started up from my knees, and screamed out, “Oh, Miss, that’s a nasty trick! You have no right to nip me, and Pm not going to bear it.” “I didn’t touch you, you lying creature!” cried she, her fingers tingling to repeat the act, and her ears red with rage. She never had power to conceal her passion, it always set her whole complexion in a blaze. “What’s that, then?” I retorted, showing a decided purple witness to refute her. She stamped her foot, wavered a moment, and then, irresistibly -67- Wuthering Heights impelled by the naughty spirit within her, slapped me on the cheek: a stinging blow that filled both eyes with water. “Catherine, love! Catherine!” interposed Linton, greatly shocked at the double fault of falsehood and violence which his idol had committed. “Leave the room, Ellen!” she repeated, trembling all over. Little Hareton, who followed me everywhere, and was sitting near me on the floor, at seeing my tears commenced crying himselfj and sobbed out complaints against “wicked aunt Cath/’, which drew her fury on to his unlucky head: she seized his shoulders, and shook him till the poor child waxed livid, and Edgar thoughtlessly laid hold of her hands to deliver him. In an instant one was wrung free, and the astonished young man felt it applied over his own ear in a way that could not be mistaken for jest. He drew back in consternation. I lifted Hareton in my arms, and walked off to the kitchen with him, leaving the door of communication open, for I was curious to watch how they would settle their disagreement. The insulted visitor moved to the spot where he had laid his hat, pale and with a quivering lip. “That’s right!” I said to myself “Take warning and begone! It’s a kindness to let you have a glimpse of her genuine disposition.” uWhere are you going?” demanded Catherine, advancing to the door. He swerved aside, and attempted to pass. “Abu must not go!” she exclaimed, energetically “I must and shall!” he replied in a subdued voice. “No,” she persisted, grasping the handle, “not yet, Edgar Linton: sit down; you shall not leave me in that temper. I should be miserable all night, and I won’t be miserable for you!” “Can I stay after you have struck me?” asked Linton. Catherine was mute. “Y)u’ve made me afraid and ashamed of you,” he continued, “I’ll not come here again!” Her eyes began to glisten and her lids to twinkle. -68- CHAPTER 8 'And you told a deliberate untruth!” he said. “I didn’t!” she cried, recovering her speech, “I did nothing deliberately Well, go, if you please―get away! And now Fll cry— Uli cry myself sick!” She dropped down on her knees by a chair, and set to weeping in serious earnest. Edgar persevered in his resolution as far as the court; there he lingered. I resolved to encourage him. “Miss is dreadfully wayward, sir,” I called out, 'As bad as any marred child: Ybu’t better be riding home, or else she will be sick, only to grieve us.” The soft thing looked askance through the window: he possessed the power to depart as much as a cat possesses the power to leave a mouse half killed, or a bird half eaten. Ah, I thought, there will be no saving him: he’s doomed, and flies to his fate! And so it was: he turned abruptly hastened into the house again, shut the door behind him; and when I went in a while after to inform them that Earnshaw had come home rabid drunk, ready to pull the whole place about our ears (his ordinary frame of mind in that condition), I saw the quarrel had merely effected a closer intimacy—had broken the outworks of youthful timidity; and enabled them to forsake the disguise of friendship, and confess themselves lovers. Intelligence of Mr. Hindle/s arrival drove Linton speedily to his horse, and Catherine to her chamber. I went to hide little Hareton, and to take the shot out of the master’s fowling-piece, which he was fond of playing with in his insane excitement, to the hazard of the lives of any who provoked, or even attracted his notice too much; and I had hit upon the plan of removing it, that he might do less mischief if he did go the length of firing the gun. 命 CHAPTER 9 He entered, vociferating oaths dreadful to hear; and caught me in the act of stowing his son away in the kitchen cupboard. Hareton was impressed with a wholesome terror of encountering either his wild beast’s fondness or his madman’s rage; for in one he ran a chance of being squeezed and kissed to death, and in the other of being flung into the fire, or dashed against the wall; and the poor thing remained perfectly quiet wherever I chose to put him. “There, Fve found it out at last!” cried Hindleg pulling me back by the skin of my neck, like a dog. “By heaven and hell, Yz)u’ve sworn between you to murder that child! I know how it is, now, that he is always out of my way But, with the help of Satan, I shall make you swallow the carving-knife, Nelly! ydu needn’t laugh; for Fve just crammed Kenneth, head-downmost, in the Black-horse marsh; and two is the same as one—and I want to kill some of you: I shall have no rest till I do!,^ “But I don’t like the carving-knife, Mr. Hindley;” I answered, “it has been cutting red herrings. Ft rather be shot, if you please.M “Ybu’t rather be damned!” he said, “and so you shall. No law in England can hinder a man from keeping his house decent, and mine’s abominable! Open your mouth.” He held the knife in his hand, and pushed its point between my teeth: but, for my part, I was never much afraid of his vagaries. I spat out, and affirmed it tasted detestably—I would not take it on any account. “Oh!” said he, releasing me, “I see that hideous little villain is not Hareton: I beg your pardon, Nell. If it be, he deserves flaying alive for not running to welcome me, and for screaming as if I were a goblin. Unnatural cub, come hither! Pll teach thee to impose on a good-hearted, deluded father. Now; don’t you think the lad -70- CHAPTER 9 would be handsomer cropped? It makes a dog fiercer, and I love something fierce—get me a scissors—something fierce and trim! Besides, it’s infernal affectation—devilish conceit it is, to cherish our ears—we’re asses enough without them. Hush, child, hush! Well then, it is my darling! wisht, dry thy eyes一there’s a joy; kiss me. What! it won’t? Kiss me, Hareton! Damn thee, kiss me! By God, as if I would rear such a monster! As sure asFm living, Fll break the brat’s neck.” Poor Hareton was squalling and kicking in his father’s arms with all his might, and redoubled his yells when he carried him up- stairs and lifted him over the banister. I cried out that he would frighten the child into fits, and ran to rescue him. As I reached them, Hindley leant forward on the rails to listen to a noise below; almost forgetting what he had in his hands. “Who is that?” he asked, hearing some one approaching the stairs’-foot. I leant forward also, for the purpose of signing to Heathcliff^ whose step I recognised, not to come further; and, at the instant when my eye quitted Hareton, he gave a sudden spring, delivered himself from the careless grasp that held him, and fell. There was scarcely time to experience a thrill of horror before we saw that the little wretch was safe. Heathcliff arrived underneath just at the critical moment; by a natural impulse he arrested his descent, and setting him on his feet, looked up to discover the author of the accident. A miser who has parted with a lucky lottery ticket for five shillings, and finds next day he has lost in the bargain five thousand pounds, could not show a blanker countenance than he did on beholding the figure of Mr. Earnshaw above. It expressed, plainer than words could do, the intensest anguish at having made himself the instrument of thwarting his own revenge. Had it been dark, I daresay he would have tried to remedy the mistake by smashing Hareton’s skull on the steps; but, we witnessed his salvation; and I was presently below with my precious charge pressed to my heart. Hindley descended more leisurely; sobered and abashed. -71- Wuthering Heights “It is your fault, Ellen,” he said, “you should have kept him out of sight: you should have taken him from me! Is he injured anywhere?” “Injured!” I cried angrily “if he is not killed, he’ll be an idiot! Oh! I wonder his mother does not rise from her grave to see how you use him. ybu’re worse than a heathen—treating your own flesh and blood in that manner!M He attempted to touch the child, who, on finding himself with me, sobbed off his terror directly At the first finger his father laid on him, however, he shrieked again louder than before, and struggled as if he would go into convulsions. “Abu shall not meddle with him!” I continued, “He hates you— they all hate you—that’s the truth! A happy family you have; and a pretty state you’re come to!” “I shall come to a prettier, yet, Nelly;” laughed the misguided man, recovering his hardness. ‘At present, convey yourself and him away And hark you, Heathcliff! clear you too quite from my reach and hearing. I wouldn’t murder you to-night; unless, perhaps, I set the house on fire: but that’s as my fancy goes.” While saying this he took a pint bottle of brandy from the dresser, and poured some into a tumbler. “Nay; don’t!” I entreated, “Mr. Hindleg do take warning. Have mercy on this unfortunate boy, if you care nothing for yourself!” 'Any one will do better for him than I shall,” he answered. “Have mercy on your own soul!” I said, endeavouring to snatch the glass from his hand. “Not I! On the contrary I shall have great pleasure in sending it to perdition to punish its Maker,M exclaimed the blasphemer. “Here’s to its hearty damnation!” He drank the spirits and impatiently bade us go; terminating his command with a sequel of horrid imprecations too bad to repeat or remember. “It’s a pity he cannot kill himself with drink,” observed Heathcliffi muttering an echo of curses back when the door was shut. “He’s doing his very utmost; but his constitution defies him. -72- CHAPTER 9 Mr. Kenneth says he would wager his mare that he’ll outlive any man on this side Gimmerton, and go to the grave a hoary sinner; unless some happy chance out of the common course befall him.” I went into the kitchen, and sat down to lull my little lamb to sleep. Heathcliff^ as I thought, walked through to the barn. It turned out afterwards that he only got as far as the other side the settle, when he flung himself on a bench by the wall, removed from the fire and remained silent. I was rocking Hareton on my knee, and humming a song that began,— It was far in the night, and the bairnies grat, The mither beneath the mools heard that, when Miss Cathy who had listened to the hubbub from her room, put her head in, and whispered,一‘Are you alone, Nelly?,, wVes, Miss,” I replied. She entered and approached the hearth. I, supposing she was going to say something, looked up. The expression of her face seemed disturbed and anxious. Her lips were half asunder, as if she meant to speak, and she drew a breath; but it escaped in a sigh instead of a sentence. I resumed my song; not having forgotten her recent behaviour. “Where’s Heathcliff?” she said, interrupting me. ‘About his work in the stable,w was my answer. He did not contradict me; perhaps he had fallen into a doze. There followed another long pause, during which I perceived a drop or two trickle from Catherine’s cheek to the flags. Is she sorry for her shameful conduct?一I asked myself That will be a novelty: but she may come to the point—as she will—I sha’n’t help her! No, she felt small trouble regarding any subject, save her own concerns. “Oh, dear!” she cried at last, “I’m very unhappy!” ‘A pity” observed I. “Abu’re hard to please; so many friends and so few cares, and can’t make yourself content!” -73- Wuthering Heights “Nelly, will you keep a secret for me?” she pursued, kneeling down by me, and lifting her winsome eyes to my face with that sort of look which turns off bad temper, even when one has all the right in the world to indulge it. “Is it worth keeping?” I inquired, less sulkily uYes, and it worries me, and I must let it out! I want to know what I should do. To-day; Edgar Linton has asked me to marry him, and Pve given him an answer. No\^ before I tell you whether it was a consent or denial, you tell me which it ought to have been.” “Really Miss Catherine, how can I know?” I replied, “To be sure, considering the exhibition you performed in his presence this afternoon, I might say it would be wise to refuse him: since he asked you after that, he must either be hopelessly stupid or a venturesome fool.” “If you talk so, I won’t tell you any more,” she returned, peevishly rising to her feet. “I accepted him, Nelly Be quick, and say whether I was wrong!w “Ydu accepted him! Then what good is it discussing the matter? %u have pledged your word, and cannot retract.” “But say whether I should have done so~ o!” she exclaimed in an irritated tone; chafing her hands together, and frowning. “There are many things to be considered before that question can be answered properly,w I said, sententiously “First and foremost, do you love Mr. Edgar?” “Who can help it? Of course I do,” she answered. Then I put her through the following catechism: for a girl of twenty-two it was not injudicious. “Why do you love him, Miss Cathy?” “Nonsense, I do—that’s sufficient.,^ “By no means; you must say why?” “Wfell, because he is handsome, and pleasant to be with.” “Bad!” was my commentary 'And because he is young and cheerful.” -74- CHAPTER 9 "Bad, Still.,, ‘And because he loves me.” 4

eauty! I should scarcely have known you: you look like a lady now Isabella Linton is not to be compared with her, is she, Frances?” “Isabella has not her natural advantages,w replied his wife, “but she must mind and not grow wild again here. Ellen, help Miss Catherine off with her things—Stay dear, you will disarrange your curls—let me untie your hat.” I removed the habit, and there shone forth beneath a grand plaid silk frock, white trousers, and burnished shoes; and, while her eyes sparkled joyfully when the dogs came bounding up to welcome her, she dared hardly touch them lest they should fawn upon her splendid garments. She kissed me gently: I was all flour making the Christmas cake, and it would not have done to give me a hug; and then she looked round for Heathcliff Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw watched anxiously their meeting; thinking it would enable them to judge, in some measure, what grounds they had for hoping to succeed in separating the two friends. Heathcliff was hard to discover, at first. If he were careless, -49- Wuthering Heights and uncared for, before Catherine’s absence, he had been ten times more so since. Nobody but I even did him the kindness to call him a dirty boy and bid him wash himself once a week; and children of his age seldom have a natural pleasure in soap and water. Therefore, not to mention his clothes, which had seen three months, service in mire and dust, and his thick uncombed hair, the surface of his face and hands was dismally beclouded. He might well skulk behind the settle, on beholding such a bright, graceful damsel enter the house, instead of a rough-headed counterpart of himself^ as he expected. “Is Heathcliff not here?” she demanded, pulling off her gloves, and displaying fingers wonderfully whitened with doing nothing and staying indoors. “Heathcliff^ you may come forward/5 cried Mr. Hindley enjoying his discomfiture, and gratified to see what a forbidding young blackguard he would be compelled to present himself “Ybu may come and wish Miss Catherine welcome, like the other servants.” Cathy catching a glimpse of her friend in his concealment, flew to embrace him; she bestowed seven or eight kisses on his cheek within the second, and then stopped, and drawing back, burst into a laugh, exclaiming, “Why how very black and cross you look! and how—how funny and grim! But that’s because Fm used to Edgar and Isabella Linton. Well, Heathcliff^ have you forgotten me?” She had some reason to put the question, for shame and pride threw double gloom over his countenance, and kept him immovable. “Shake hands, Heathcliff/’ said Mr. Earnshaw condescendingly; “once in a way that is permitted.” “I shall not,” replied the boy finding his tongue at last; “I shall not stand to be laughed at. I shall not bear it!” And he would have broken from the circle, but Miss Cathy seized him again. “I did not mean to laugh at you,” she said, “I could not hinder myself: Heathcliff^ shake hands at least! What are you sulky for? It was only that you looked odd. If you wash your face and brush your hair, it will be all right: but you are so dirty!” -50- CHAPTER 7 She gazed concernedly at the dusky fingers she held in her own, and also at her dress; which she feared had gained no embellishment from its contact with his. “Abu neednY have touched me!” he answered, following her eye and snatching away his hand. “I shall be as dirty as I please: and I like to be dirty and I will be dirty” With that he dashed headforemost out of the room, amid the merriment of the master and mistress, and to the serious disturbance of Catherine; who could not comprehend how her remarks should have produced such an exhibition of bad temper. After playing lady’s maid to the new-comer, and putting my cakes in the oven, and making the house and kitchen cheerful with great fires, befitting Christmas-eve, I prepared to sit down and amuse myself by singing carols, all alone; regardless of Joseph’s affirmations that he considered the merry tunes I chose as next door to songs. He had retired to private prayer in his chamber, and Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw were engaging Miss/s attention by sundry gay trifles bought for her to present to the little Lintons, as an acknowledgment of their kindness. They had invited them to spend the morrow at Wuthering Heights, and the invitation had been accepted, on one condition: Mrs. Linton begged that her darlings might be kept carefully apart from that “naughty swearing boy\ Under these circumstances I remained solitary I smelt the rich scent of the heating spices; and admired the shining kitchen utensils, the polished clock, decked in holly the silver mugs ranged on a tray ready to be filled with mulled ale for supper; and above all, the speckless purity of my particular care一the scoured and well- swept floor. I gave due inward applause to every object, and then I remembered how old Earnshaw used to come in when all was tidied, and call me a cant lass, and slip a shilling into my hand as a Christmas-box; and from that I went on to think of his fondness for Heathcliff^ and his dread lest he should suffer neglect after death had removed him: and that naturally led me to consider the poor lad’s situation now; and from singing I changed my mind to -51- Wuthering Heights crying. It struck me soon, however, there would be more sense in endeavouring to repair some of his wrongs than shedding tears over them: I got up and walked into the court to seek him. He was not far; I found him smoothing the glossy coat of the new pony in the stable, and feeding the other beasts, according to custom. “Make haste, Heathcliff!” I said, uthe kitchen is so comfortable; and Joseph is up-stairs: make haste, and let me dress you smart before Miss Cathy comes out, and then you can sit together, with the whole hearth to yourselves, and have a long chatter till bedtime.” He proceeded with his task, and never turned his head towards me. “Come—are you coming?^^ I continued, “There’s a little cake for each of you, nearly enough; and you’ll need halfan-hour’s donning.^^ I waited five minutes, but getting no answer left him. Catherine supped with her brother and sister-in-law: Joseph and I joined at an unsociable meal, seasoned with reproofs on one side and sauciness on the other. His cake and cheese remained on the table all night for the fairies. He managed to continue work till nine o’clock,and then marched dumb and dour to his chamber. Cathy sat up late, having a world of things to order for the reception of her new friends: she came into the kitchen once to speak to her old one; but he was gone, and she only stayed to ask what was the matter with him, and then went back. In the morning he rose early; and, as it was a holiday; carried his ill-humour onto the moors; not re- appearing till the family were departed for church. Fasting and reflection seemed to have brought him to a better spirit. He hung about me for a while, and having screwed up his courage, exclaimed abruptly~~'‘Nelly make me decent,Fm going to be good”. “High time, Heathcliff/’ I said, “you have grieved Catherine: she’s sorry she ever came home, I daresay! It looks as if you envied her, because she is more thought of than you.” The notion of envying Catherine was incomprehensible to him, but the notion of grieving her he understood clearly enough. -52 - CHAPTER 7 “Did she say she was grieved?” he inquired, looking very serious. “She cried when I told her you were off again this morning.w “Wfell, I cried last night,M he returned, “and I had more reason to cry than she.” uYes: you had the reason of going to bed with a proud heart and an empty stomach,M said I. “Proud people breed sad sorrows for themselves. But, if you be ashamed of your touchiness, you must ask pardon, mind, when she comes in. Vou must go up and offer to kiss her, and say~~you know best what to say; only do it heartily and not as if you thought her converted into a stranger by her grand dress. And now, though I have dinner to get ready Uli steal time to arrange you so that Edgar Linton shall look quite a doll beside you: and that he does. Vou are younger, and yet, Fll be bound, you are taller and twice as broad across the shoulders; you could knock him down in a twinkling; don’t you feel that you could?” Heathcliff’s face brightened a moment; then it was overcast afresh, and he sighed. “But, Nelly if I knocked him down twenty times, that wouldn’t make him less handsome or me more so. I wish I had light hair and a fair skin, and was dressed and behaved as well, and had a chance of being as rich as he will be!” ‘And cried for mamma at every turn,” I added, “and trembled if a country lad heaved his fist against you, and sat at home all day for a shower of rain. Oh, Heathcliffi you are showing a poor spirit! Come to the glass, and I’ll let you see what you should wish. Do you mark those two lines between your eyes; and those thick brows, that, instead of rising arched, sink in the middle; and that couple of black fiends, so deeply buried, who never open their windows boldly; but lurk glinting under them, like deviFs spies? Wish and learn to smooth away the surly wrinkles, to raise your lids frankly; and change the fiends to confident, innocent angels, suspecting and doubting nothing, and always seeing friends where they are not sure of foes. Don’t get the expression of a vicious cur -53- Wuthering Heights that appears to know the kicks it gets are its desert, and yet hates all the world, as well as the kicker, for what it suffers.” “In other words, I must wish for Edgar Lintorfs great blue eyes and even forehead,w he replied. “I do—and that won’t help me to them.,, t6A good heart will help you to a bonny face, my lad,” I continued, “if you were a regular black; and a bad one will turn the bonniest into something worse than ugly And now that we’ve done washing, and combing, and sulking—tell me whether you don’t think yourself rather handsome? I’ll tell you, I do. Ybu’re fit for a prince in disguise. Who knows but your father was Emperor of China, and your mother an Indian queen, each of them able to buy up, with one week’s income, Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange together? And you were kidnapped by wicked sailors and brought to England. Were I in your place, I would frame high notions of my birth; and the thoughts of what I was should give me courage and dignity to support the oppressions of a little farmerr’ So I chattered on; and Heathcliff gradually lost his frown and began to look quite pleasant, when all at once our conversation was interrupted by a rumbling sound moving up the road and entering the court. He ran to the window and I to the door, just in time to behold the two Lintons descend from the family carriage, smothered in cloaks and furs, and the Earnshaws dismount from their horses: they often rode to church in winter. Catherine took a hand of each of the children, and brought them into the house and set them before the fire, which quickly put colour into their white faces. I urged my companion to hasten now and show his amiable humour, and he willingly obeyed; but ill luck would have it that, as he opened the door leading from the kitchen on one side, Hindley opened it on the other. They met, and the master, irritated at seeing him clean and cheerful, or, perhaps, eager to keep his promise to Mrs. Linton, shoved him back with a sudden thrust, and angrily bade Joseph “keep the fellow out of the room—send him into the -54 - CHAPTER 7 garret till dinner is over. He’ll be cramming his fingers in the tarts and stealing the fruit, if left alone with them a minute.” “Nay sir,” I could not avoid answering, “he’ll touch nothing, not he: and I suppose he must have his share of the dainties as well as we.” “He shall have his share of my hand, if I catch him downstairs till dark,” cried Hindleg “Begone, you vagabond! What! you are attempting the coxcomb, are you? Wait till I get hold of those elegant locks—see if I won’t pull them a bit longer!” “They are long enough already,M observed Master Linton, peeping from the doorway; “I wonder they don’t make his head ache. It’s like a colt’s mane over his eyes!” He ventured this remark without any intention to insult; but Heathcliff’s violent nature was not prepared to endure the appearance of impertinence from one whom he seemed to hate, even then, as a rival. He seized a tureen of hot apple sauce, the first thing that came under his gripe, and dashed it full against the speaker’s face and neck; who instantly commenced a lament that brought Isabella and Catherine hurrying to the place. Mr. Earnshaw snatched up the culprit directly and conveyed him to his chamber; where, doubtless, he administered a rough remedy to cool the fit of passion, for he reappeared red and breathless. I got the dishcloth, and rather spitefully scrubbed Edgar’s nose and mouth, affirming it served him right for meddling. His sister began weeping to go home, and Cathy stood by confounded, blushing for all. “Ybu should not have spoken to him!,, she expostulated with Master Linton. “He was in a bad temper, and now Ydu’ve spoilt your visit; and he’ll be flogged: I hate him to be flogged! I can’t eat my dinner. Why did you speak to him, Edgar?” “I didn’t,” sobbed the youth, escaping from my hands, and finishing the remainder of the purification with his cambric pocket-handkerchief “I promised mamma that I wouldn’t say one word to him, and I didn’t.” "'Well, don’t cry;” replied Catherine, contemptuously; “you’re -55- Wuthering Heights not killed. Don’t make more mischief; my brother is coming: be quiet! Hush, Isabella! Has anybody hurt you?J, “There, there, children—to your seats!” cried Hindley bustling in. “That brute of a lad has warmed me nicely Next time, Master Edgar, take the law into your own fists一it will give you an appetite!” The little party recovered its equanimity at sight of the fragrant feast. They were hungry after their ride, and easily consoled, since no real harm had befallen them. Mr. Earnshaw carved bountiful platefuls, and the mistress made them merry with lively talk. I waited behind her chair, and was pained to behold Catherine, with dry eyes and an indifferent air, commence cutting up the wing of a goose before her. ‘An unfeeling child,” I thought to myselfj “how lightly she dismisses her old playmate’s troubles. I could not have imagined her to be so selfish.” She lifted a mouthful to her lips: then she set it down again: her cheeks flushed, and the tears gushed over them. She slipped her fork to the floor, and hastily dived under the cloth to conceal her emotion. I did not call her unfeeling long; for I perceived she was in purgatory throughout the day and wearying to find an opportunity of getting by herselfj or paying a visit to Heathcliffj who had been locked up by the master: as I discovered, on endeavouring to introduce to him a private mess of victuals. In the evening we had a dance. Cathy begged that he might be liberated then, as Isabella Linton had no partner: her entreaties were vain, and I was appointed to supply the deficiency We got rid of all gloom in the excitement of the exercise, and our pleasure was increased by the arrival of the Gimmerton band, mustering fifteen strong: a trumpet, a trombone, clarionets, bassoons, French horns, and a bass viol, besides singers. They go the rounds of all the respectable houses, and receive contributions every Christmas, and we esteemed it a first-rate treat to hear them. After the usual carols had been sung, we set them to songs and glees. Mrs. Earnshaw loved the music, and so they gave us plenty Catherine loved it too: but she said it sounded sweetest at -56- CHAPTER 7 the top of the steps, and she went up in the dark: I followed. They shut the house door below, never noting our absence, it was so full of people. She made no stay at the stairs’-head,but mounted farther, to the garret where Heathcliff was confined, and called him. He stubbornly declined answering for a while: she persevered, and finally persuaded him to hold communion with her through the boards. I let the poor things converse unmolested, till I supposed the songs were going to cease, and the singers to get some refreshment: then I clambered up the ladder to warn her. Instead of finding her outside, I heard her voice within. The little monkey had crept by the skylight of one garret, along the roofj into the skylight of the other, and it was with the utmost difficulty I could coax her out again. When she did come, Heathcliff came with her, and she insisted that I should take him into the kitchen, as my fellow-servant had gone to a neighbour’s, to be removed from the sound of our “devil’s psalmody”,as it pleased him to call it. I told them I intended by no means to encourage their tricks: but as the prisoner had never broken his fast since yesterday’s dinner, I would wink at his cheating Mr. Hindley that once. He went down: I set him a stool by the fire, and offered him a quantity of good things: but he was sick and could eat little, and my attempts to entertain him were thrown away He leant his two elbows on his knees, and his chin on his hands, and remained wrapt in dumb meditation. On my inquiring the subject of his thoughts, he answered gravely—“I’m trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back. I don’t care how long I wait, if I can only do it at last. I hope he will not die before I do”! “For shame, Heathcliff!” said I. “It is for God to punish wicked people; we should learn to forgive.” “No, God won’t have the satisfaction that I shall,” he returned, “I only wish I knew the best way! Let me alone, and I’ll plan it out: while Fm thinking of that I don’t feel pain.” “But, Mr. Lockwood, I forget these tales cannot divert you. I’m annoyed how I should dream of chattering on at such a rate; -57- Wuthering Heights and your gruel cold, and you nodding for bed! I could have told Heathcliff’s history all that you need hear, in half a dozen words.” 木 木* 木 本 本 Thus interrupting herself the housekeeper rose, and proceeded to lay aside her sewing; but I felt incapable of moving from the hearth, and I was very far from nodding. “Sit still, Mrs. Dean,” I cried; “do sit still another half hour. %u’ve done just right to tell the story leisurely That is the method I like; and you must finish it in the same style. I am interested in every character you have mentioned, more or less.” “The clock is on the stroke of eleven, sir.” “No matter一I’m not accustomed to go to bed in the long hours. One or two is early enough for a person who lies till ten.” shouldn’t lie till ten. There’s the very prime of the morning gone long before that time. A person who has not done one-half his da/s work by ten o’clock,runs a chance of leaving the other half undone.” “Nevertheless, Mrs. Dean, resume your chair; because to- morrow I intend lengthening the night till afternoon. I prognosticate for myself an obstinate cold, at least.” “I hope not, sir. Well, you must allow me to leap over some three years; during that space Mrs. Earnshaw—” “No, no, Fll allow nothing of the sort! Are you acquainted with the mood of mind in which, if you were seated alone, and the cat licking its kitten on the rug before you, you would watch the operation so intently that puss’s neglect of one ear would put you seriously out of temper?” aA terribly lazy mood, I should say” “On the contrary a tiresomely active one. It is mine, at present; and, therefore, continue minutely I perceive that people in these regions acquire over people in towns the value that a spider in a dungeon does over a spider in a cottage, to their various occupants; and yet the deepened attraction is not entirely owing to the situation of the looker-on. They do live more in earnest, -58- CHAPTER 7 more in themselves, and less in surface change, and frivolous external things. I could fancy a love for life here almost possible; and I was a fixed unbeliever in any love of a year’s standing. One state resembles setting a hungry man down to a single dish, on which he may concentrate his entire appetite and do it justice; the other, introducing him to a table laid out by French cooks: he can perhaps extract as much enjoyment from the whole; but each part is a mere atom in his regard and remembrance.M “Oh! here we are the same as anywhere else, when you get to know us,” observed Mrs. Dean, somewhat puzzled at my speech. “Excuse me,” I responded, “you,my good friend, are a striking evidence against that assertion. Excepting a few provincialisms of slight consequence, you have no marks of the manners which I am habituated to consider as peculiar to your class. I am sure you have thought a great deal more than the generality of servants think. You have been compelled to cultivate your reflective faculties for want of occasions for frittering your life away in silly trifles.” Mrs. Dean laughed. “I certainly esteem myself a steady; reasonable kind of body;” she said, “not exactly from living among the hills and seeing one set of faces, and one series of actions, from year’s end to year’s end; but I have undergone sharp discipline, which has taught me wisdom; and then, I have read more than you would fancy; Mr. Lockwood. %u could not open a book in this library that I have not looked into, and got something out of also: unless it be that range of Greek and Latin, and that of French; and those I know one from another: it is as much as you can expect of a poor man’s daughter. However, if I am to follow my story in true gossip’s fashion, I had better go on; and instead of leaping three years, I will be content to pass to the next summer—the summer of 1778, that is nearly twenty-three years ago.” -5少 CHAPTER 8 On the morning of a fine June day my first bonny little nursling, and the last of the ancient Earnshaw stock, was born. We were busy with the hay in a far-away field, when the girl that usually brought our breakfasts came running an hour too soon across the meadow and up the lane, calling me as she ran. “Oh, such a grand bairn!” she panted out, “The finest lad that ever breathed! But the doctor says missis must go: he says she’s been in a consumption these many months. I heard him tell Mr. Hindley: and now she has nothing to keep her, and she’ll be dead before winter, ^ou must come home directly Vbu’re to nurse it, Nelly: to feed it with sugar and milk, and take care of it day and night. I wish I were you, because it will be all yours when there is no missis!” “But is she very I asked, flinging down my rake and tying my bonnet. “I guess she is; yet she looks bravely;” replied the girl, “and she talks as if she thought of living to see it grow a man. She’s out of her head for joy, it’s such a beauty! If I were her I’m certain I should not die: I should get better at the bare sight of it, in spite of Kenneth. I was fairly mad at him. Dame Archer brought the cherub down to master, in the house, and his face just began to light up, then the old croaker steps forward, and says he— “Earnshax^ it’s a blessing your wife has been spared to leave you this son. When she came, I felt convinced we shouldn’t keep her long; and now, I must tell you, the winter will probably finish her. Don’t take on, and fret about it too much: it can’t be helped. And besides, you should have known better than to choose such a rush of a lass”! -6o- CHAPTER 8 "And what did the master answer?” I inquired. “I think he swore: but I didn’t mind him, I was straining to see the bairn,” and she bc^gan again to describe it rapturously I, as zealous as herself^ hurried eagerly home to admire, on my part; though I was very sad for Hindley’s sake. He had room in his heart only for two idols—his wife and himself: he doted on both, and adored one, and I couldn’t conceive how he would bear the loss. When we got to Wuthering Heights, there he stood at the front door; and, as I passed in, I asked, “how was the baby?” “Nearly ready to run about, Nell!” he replied, putting on a cheerful smile. 'And the mistress?” I ventured to inquire; “the doctor says she’s—” “Damn the doctor!he interrupted, reddening, “Frances is quite right: she’ll be perfectly well by this time next week. Are you going up-stairs? will you tell her that Pll come, if she’ll promise not to talk. I left her because she would not hold her tongue; and she must—tell her Mr. Kenneth says she must be quiet.” I delivered this message to Mrs. Earnshaw; she seemed in flighty spirits, and replied merrily “I hardly spoke a word, Ellen, and there he has gone out twice, crying. Well, say I promise I won’t speak: but that does not bind me not to laugh at him!” Poor soul! Till within a week of her death that gay heart never failed her; and her husband persisted doggedly; nay, furiously; in affirming her health improved every day When Kenneth warned him that his medicines were useless at that stage of the malady and he needn’t put him to further expense by attending her, he retorted, “I know you need not—she’s well—she does not want any more attendance from you! She never was in a consumption. It was a fever; and it is gone: her pulse is as slow as mine nox^ and her cheek as cool.” He told his wife the same story; and she seemed to believe him; but one night, while leaning on his shoulder, in the act of -6l- Wuthering Heights saying she thought she should be able to get up to-morrow; a fit of coughing took her—a very slight one—he raised her in his arms; she put her two hands about his neck, her face changed, and she was dead. As the girl had anticipated, the child Hareton fell wholly into my hands. Mr. Earnshaw; provided he saw him healthy and never heard him cry; was contented, as far as regarded him. For himself, he grew desperate: his sorrow was of that kind that will not lament. He neither wept nor prayed; he cursed and defied: execrated God and man, and gave himself up to reckless dissipation. The servants could not bear his tyrannical and evil conduct long: Joseph and I were the only two that would stay I had not the heart to leave my charge; and besides, you knov^ I had been his foster-sister, and excused his behaviour more readily than a stranger would. Joseph remained to hector over tenants and labourers; and because it was his vocation to be where he had plenty of wickedness to reprove. The master’s bad ways and bad companions formed a pretty example for Catherine and HeathclifE His treatment of the latter was enough to make a fiend of a saint. And, truly it appeared as if the lad were possessed of something diabolical at that period. He delighted to witness Hindley degrading himself past redemption; and became daily more notable for savage sullenness and ferocity I could not half tell what an infernal house we had. The curate dropped calling, and nobody decent came near us, at last; unless Edgar Linton’s visits to Miss Cathy might be an exception. At fifteen she was the queen of the country-side; she had no peer; and she did turn out a haughty headstrong creature! I own I did not like her, after infancy was past; and I vexed her frequently by trying to bring down her arrogance: she never took an aversion to me, though. She had a wondrous constancy to old attachments: even Heathcliff kept his hold on her affections unalterably; and young Linton, with all his superiority; found it difficult to make an equally deep impression. He was my late master: that is his -62- CHAPTER 8 portrait over the fireplace. It used to hang on one side, and his wife’s on the other; but hers has been removed, or else you might see something of what she was. Can you make that out? Mrs. Dean raised the candle, and I discerned a soft-featured face, exceedingly resembling the young lady at the Heights, but more pensive and amiable in expression. It formed a sweet picture. The long light hair curled slightly on the temples; the eyes were large and serious; the figure almost too graceful. I did not marvel how Catherine Earnshaw could forget her first friend for such an individual. I marvelled much how he, with a mind to correspond with his person, could fancy my idea of Catherine Earnshaw 4A very agreeable portrait,M I observed to the house-keeper, “Is it like?" “Yes,” she answered, “but he looked better when he was animated; that is his everyday countenance: he wanted spirit in general.” Catherine had kept up her acquaintance with the Lintons since her five-weeks’ residence among them; and as she had no temptation to show her rough side in their company and had the sense to be ashamed of being rude where she experienced such invariable courtesy; she imposed unwittingly on the old lady and gentleman by her ingenious cordiality; gained the admiration of Isabella, and the heart and soul of her brother: acquisitions that flattered her from the first—for she was full of ambition—and led her to adopt a double character without exactly intending to deceive any one. In the place where she heard HeathclifF termed a “vulgar young ruffian” and “worse than a brute”,she took care not to act like him; but at home she had small inclination to practise politeness that would only be laughed at, and restrain an unruly nature when it would bring her neither credit nor praise. Mr. Edgar seldom mustered courage to visit Wuthering Heights openly He had a terror of Earnshaw’s reputation, and shrunk from encountering him; and yet he was always received with our -63- Wuthering Heights best attempts at civility: the master himself avoided offending him, knowing why he came; and if he could not be gracious, kept out of the way I rather think his appearance there was distasteful to Catherine; she was not artful, never played the coquette, and had evidently an objection to her two friends meeting at all; for when Heathcliff expressed contempt of Linton in his presence, she could not half coincide, as she did in his absence; and when Linton evinced disgust and antipathy to Heathcliffi she dared not treat his sentiments with indifference, as if depreciation of her playmate were of scarcely any consequence to her. Fve had many a laugh at her perplexities and untold troubles, which she vainly strove to hide from my mockery That sounds ill-natured: but she was so proud it became really impossible to pity her distresses, till she should be chastened into more humility She did bring herself finally to confess, and to confide in me: there was not a soul else that she might fashion into an adviser. Mr. Hindley had gone from home one afternoon, and Heathcliff presumed to give himself a holiday on the strength of it. He had reached the age of sixteen then, I think, and without having bad features, or being deficient in intellect, he contrived to convey an impression of inward and outward repulsiveness that his present aspect retains no traces o£ In the first place, he had by that time lost the benefit of his early education: continual hard work, begun soon and concluded late, had extinguished any curiosity he once possessed in pursuit of knowledge, and any love for books or learning. His childhood’s sense of superiority; instilled into him by the favours of old Mr. Earnshaw; was faded away He struggled long to keep up an equality with Catherine in her studies, and yielded with poignant though silent regret: but he yielded completely; and there was no prevailing on him to take a step in the way of moving upward, when he found he must, necessarily; sink beneath his former level. Then personal appearance sympathised with mental deterioration: he acquired a slouching gait and ignoble look; his naturally reserved disposition -6个 CHAPTER 8 was exaggerated into an almost idiotic excess of unsociable moroseness; and he took a grim pleasure, apparentlj; in exciting the aversion rather than the esteem of his few acquaintances. Catherine and he were constant companions still at his seasons of respite from labour; but he had ceased to express his fondness for her in words, and recoiled with angry suspicion from her girlish caresses, as if conscious there could be no gratification in lavishing such marks of affection on him. On the before-named occasion he came into the house to announce his intention of doing nothing, while I was assisting Miss Cathy to arrange her dress: she had not reckoned on his taking it into his head to be idle; and imagining she would have the whole place to herselfj she managed, by some means, to inform Mr. Edgar of her brother’s absence, and was then preparing to receive him. “Cathy; are you busy this afternoon?” asked Heathcliffi ‘Are you going anywhere?” “No, it is raining/5 she answered. “Why have you that silk frock on, then?” he said, “Nobody coming here, I hope?” “Not that I know of/’ stammered Miss, “but you should be in the field no\^ Heathcliff It is an hour past dinnertime: I thought you were gone.” “Hindley does not often free us from his accursed presence/ observed the boy; “I’ll not work any more to-day: I’ll stay with you.” “Oh,but Joseph will she suggested, “you’d better go!” ‘Joseph is loading lime on the further side of Penistone Crags; it will take him till dark, and he’ll never know” So, saying, he lounged to the fire, and sat down. Catherine reflected an instant, with knitted brows—she found it needful to smooth the way for an intrusion. “Isabella and Edgar Linton talked of calling this afternoon,M she said, at the conclusion of a minute’s silence, it rains, I hardly expect them; but they may come, and if they do, you run the risk of being scolded for no good.” -65- Wuthering Heights “Order Ellen to say you are engaged, Cathy” he persisted, “don’t turn me out for those pitiful, silly friends of yours! I’m on the point, sometimes, of complaining that they—but I’ll not—” “That they what?” cried Catherine, gazing at him with a troubled countenance. “Oh, Nelly!” she added petulantly; jerking her head away from my hands, “Vdu’ve combed my hair quite out of curl! That’s enough; let me alone. What are you on the point of complaining about, Heathcliff?” “Nothing~only look at the almanack on that wall;” he pointed to a framed sheet hanging near the window; and continued, “The crosses are for the evenings you have spent with the Lintons, the dots for those spent with me. Do you see? Fve marked every day” uYes—very foolish: as if I took notice!” replied Catherine, in a peevish tone. ‘And where is the sense of that?” “lb show that I do take notice,” said Heathcliff ‘And should I always be sitting with you?” she demanded, growing more irritated. “What good do I get? What do you talk about? You might be dumb, or a baby for anything you say to amuse me, or for anything you do, either!” Uybu never told me before that I talked too little, or that you disliked my company Cathy!,, exclaimed Heathcliff, in much agitation. “It’s no company at all, when people know nothing and say nothing,n she muttered. Her companion rose up, but he hadn’t time to express his feelings further, for a horse’s feet were heard on the flags, and having knocked gently young Linton entered, his face brilliant with delight at the unexpected summon she had received. Doubtless Catherine marked the difference between her friends, as one came in and the other went out. The contrast resembled what you see in exchanging a bleak, hilly coal country for a beautiful fertile valley; and his voice and greeting were as opposite as his aspect. He had a sweet, low manner of speaking, and pronounced his words as you do: that’s less gruff than we talk here, and softer. -66- CHAPTER 8 “I’m not come too soon, am I?” he said, casting a look at me: I had begun to wipe the plate, and tidy some drawers at the far end in the dresser. “No,” answered Catherine. “What are you doing there, Nelly?,, “My work, Miss,” I replied. (Mr. Hindley had given me directions to make a third party in any private visits Linton chose to pay) She stepped behind me and whispered crossly “THake yourself and your dusters off; when company are in the house, servants don’t commence scouring and cleaning in the room where they are!” “It’s a good opportunity now that master is away” I answered aloud, “he hates me to be fidgeting over these things in his presence. Fm sure Mr. Edgar will excuse me.” “I hate you to be fidgeting in my presence,exclaimed the young lady imperiously not allowing her guest time to speak: she had failed to recover her equanimity since the little dispute with HeathclifE “I’m sorry for it, Miss Catherine,n was my response; and I proceeded assiduously with my occupation. She, supposing Edgar could not see her, snatched the cloth from my hand, and pinched me, with a prolonged wrench, very spitefully on the arm. I’ve said I did not love her, and rather relished mortifying her vanity now and then: besides, she hurt me extremely; so I started up from my knees, and screamed out, “Oh, Miss, that’s a nasty trick! You have no right to nip me, and Pm not going to bear it.” “I didn’t touch you, you lying creature!” cried she, her fingers tingling to repeat the act, and her ears red with rage. She never had power to conceal her passion, it always set her whole complexion in a blaze. “What’s that, then?” I retorted, showing a decided purple witness to refute her. She stamped her foot, wavered a moment, and then, irresistibly -67- Wuthering Heights impelled by the naughty spirit within her, slapped me on the cheek: a stinging blow that filled both eyes with water. “Catherine, love! Catherine!” interposed Linton, greatly shocked at the double fault of falsehood and violence which his idol had committed. “Leave the room, Ellen!” she repeated, trembling all over. Little Hareton, who followed me everywhere, and was sitting near me on the floor, at seeing my tears commenced crying himselfj and sobbed out complaints against “wicked aunt Cath/’, which drew her fury on to his unlucky head: she seized his shoulders, and shook him till the poor child waxed livid, and Edgar thoughtlessly laid hold of her hands to deliver him. In an instant one was wrung free, and the astonished young man felt it applied over his own ear in a way that could not be mistaken for jest. He drew back in consternation. I lifted Hareton in my arms, and walked off to the kitchen with him, leaving the door of communication open, for I was curious to watch how they would settle their disagreement. The insulted visitor moved to the spot where he had laid his hat, pale and with a quivering lip. “That’s right!” I said to myself “Take warning and begone! It’s a kindness to let you have a glimpse of her genuine disposition.” uWhere are you going?” demanded Catherine, advancing to the door. He swerved aside, and attempted to pass. “Abu must not go!” she exclaimed, energetically “I must and shall!” he replied in a subdued voice. “No,” she persisted, grasping the handle, “not yet, Edgar Linton: sit down; you shall not leave me in that temper. I should be miserable all night, and I won’t be miserable for you!” “Can I stay after you have struck me?” asked Linton. Catherine was mute. “Y)u’ve made me afraid and ashamed of you,” he continued, “I’ll not come here again!” Her eyes began to glisten and her lids to twinkle. -68- CHAPTER 8 'And you told a deliberate untruth!” he said. “I didn’t!” she cried, recovering her speech, “I did nothing deliberately Well, go, if you please―get away! And now Fll cry— Uli cry myself sick!” She dropped down on her knees by a chair, and set to weeping in serious earnest. Edgar persevered in his resolution as far as the court; there he lingered. I resolved to encourage him. “Miss is dreadfully wayward, sir,” I called out, 'As bad as any marred child: Ybu’t better be riding home, or else she will be sick, only to grieve us.” The soft thing looked askance through the window: he possessed the power to depart as much as a cat possesses the power to leave a mouse half killed, or a bird half eaten. Ah, I thought, there will be no saving him: he’s doomed, and flies to his fate! And so it was: he turned abruptly hastened into the house again, shut the door behind him; and when I went in a while after to inform them that Earnshaw had come home rabid drunk, ready to pull the whole place about our ears (his ordinary frame of mind in that condition), I saw the quarrel had merely effected a closer intimacy—had broken the outworks of youthful timidity; and enabled them to forsake the disguise of friendship, and confess themselves lovers. Intelligence of Mr. Hindle/s arrival drove Linton speedily to his horse, and Catherine to her chamber. I went to hide little Hareton, and to take the shot out of the master’s fowling-piece, which he was fond of playing with in his insane excitement, to the hazard of the lives of any who provoked, or even attracted his notice too much; and I had hit upon the plan of removing it, that he might do less mischief if he did go the length of firing the gun. 命 CHAPTER 9 He entered, vociferating oaths dreadful to hear; and caught me in the act of stowing his son away in the kitchen cupboard. Hareton was impressed with a wholesome terror of encountering either his wild beast’s fondness or his madman’s rage; for in one he ran a chance of being squeezed and kissed to death, and in the other of being flung into the fire, or dashed against the wall; and the poor thing remained perfectly quiet wherever I chose to put him. “There, Fve found it out at last!” cried Hindleg pulling me back by the skin of my neck, like a dog. “By heaven and hell, Yz)u’ve sworn between you to murder that child! I know how it is, now, that he is always out of my way But, with the help of Satan, I shall make you swallow the carving-knife, Nelly! ydu needn’t laugh; for Fve just crammed Kenneth, head-downmost, in the Black-horse marsh; and two is the same as one—and I want to kill some of you: I shall have no rest till I do!,^ “But I don’t like the carving-knife, Mr. Hindley;” I answered, “it has been cutting red herrings. Ft rather be shot, if you please.M “Ybu’t rather be damned!” he said, “and so you shall. No law in England can hinder a man from keeping his house decent, and mine’s abominable! Open your mouth.” He held the knife in his hand, and pushed its point between my teeth: but, for my part, I was never much afraid of his vagaries. I spat out, and affirmed it tasted detestably—I would not take it on any account. “Oh!” said he, releasing me, “I see that hideous little villain is not Hareton: I beg your pardon, Nell. If it be, he deserves flaying alive for not running to welcome me, and for screaming as if I were a goblin. Unnatural cub, come hither! Pll teach thee to impose on a good-hearted, deluded father. Now; don’t you think the lad -70- CHAPTER 9 would be handsomer cropped? It makes a dog fiercer, and I love something fierce—get me a scissors—something fierce and trim! Besides, it’s infernal affectation—devilish conceit it is, to cherish our ears—we’re asses enough without them. Hush, child, hush! Well then, it is my darling! wisht, dry thy eyes一there’s a joy; kiss me. What! it won’t? Kiss me, Hareton! Damn thee, kiss me! By God, as if I would rear such a monster! As sure asFm living, Fll break the brat’s neck.” Poor Hareton was squalling and kicking in his father’s arms with all his might, and redoubled his yells when he carried him up- stairs and lifted him over the banister. I cried out that he would frighten the child into fits, and ran to rescue him. As I reached them, Hindley leant forward on the rails to listen to a noise below; almost forgetting what he had in his hands. “Who is that?” he asked, hearing some one approaching the stairs’-foot. I leant forward also, for the purpose of signing to Heathcliff^ whose step I recognised, not to come further; and, at the instant when my eye quitted Hareton, he gave a sudden spring, delivered himself from the careless grasp that held him, and fell. There was scarcely time to experience a thrill of horror before we saw that the little wretch was safe. Heathcliff arrived underneath just at the critical moment; by a natural impulse he arrested his descent, and setting him on his feet, looked up to discover the author of the accident. A miser who has parted with a lucky lottery ticket for five shillings, and finds next day he has lost in the bargain five thousand pounds, could not show a blanker countenance than he did on beholding the figure of Mr. Earnshaw above. It expressed, plainer than words could do, the intensest anguish at having made himself the instrument of thwarting his own revenge. Had it been dark, I daresay he would have tried to remedy the mistake by smashing Hareton’s skull on the steps; but, we witnessed his salvation; and I was presently below with my precious charge pressed to my heart. Hindley descended more leisurely; sobered and abashed. -71- Wuthering Heights “It is your fault, Ellen,” he said, “you should have kept him out of sight: you should have taken him from me! Is he injured anywhere?” “Injured!” I cried angrily “if he is not killed, he’ll be an idiot! Oh! I wonder his mother does not rise from her grave to see how you use him. ybu’re worse than a heathen—treating your own flesh and blood in that manner!M He attempted to touch the child, who, on finding himself with me, sobbed off his terror directly At the first finger his father laid on him, however, he shrieked again louder than before, and struggled as if he would go into convulsions. “Abu shall not meddle with him!” I continued, “He hates you— they all hate you—that’s the truth! A happy family you have; and a pretty state you’re come to!” “I shall come to a prettier, yet, Nelly;” laughed the misguided man, recovering his hardness. ‘At present, convey yourself and him away And hark you, Heathcliff! clear you too quite from my reach and hearing. I wouldn’t murder you to-night; unless, perhaps, I set the house on fire: but that’s as my fancy goes.” While saying this he took a pint bottle of brandy from the dresser, and poured some into a tumbler. “Nay; don’t!” I entreated, “Mr. Hindleg do take warning. Have mercy on this unfortunate boy, if you care nothing for yourself!” 'Any one will do better for him than I shall,” he answered. “Have mercy on your own soul!” I said, endeavouring to snatch the glass from his hand. “Not I! On the contrary I shall have great pleasure in sending it to perdition to punish its Maker,M exclaimed the blasphemer. “Here’s to its hearty damnation!” He drank the spirits and impatiently bade us go; terminating his command with a sequel of horrid imprecations too bad to repeat or remember. “It’s a pity he cannot kill himself with drink,” observed Heathcliffi muttering an echo of curses back when the door was shut. “He’s doing his very utmost; but his constitution defies him. -72- CHAPTER 9 Mr. Kenneth says he would wager his mare that he’ll outlive any man on this side Gimmerton, and go to the grave a hoary sinner; unless some happy chance out of the common course befall him.” I went into the kitchen, and sat down to lull my little lamb to sleep. Heathcliff^ as I thought, walked through to the barn. It turned out afterwards that he only got as far as the other side the settle, when he flung himself on a bench by the wall, removed from the fire and remained silent. I was rocking Hareton on my knee, and humming a song that began,— It was far in the night, and the bairnies grat, The mither beneath the mools heard that, when Miss Cathy who had listened to the hubbub from her room, put her head in, and whispered,一‘Are you alone, Nelly?,, wVes, Miss,” I replied. She entered and approached the hearth. I, supposing she was going to say something, looked up. The expression of her face seemed disturbed and anxious. Her lips were half asunder, as if she meant to speak, and she drew a breath; but it escaped in a sigh instead of a sentence. I resumed my song; not having forgotten her recent behaviour. “Where’s Heathcliff?” she said, interrupting me. ‘About his work in the stable,w was my answer. He did not contradict me; perhaps he had fallen into a doze. There followed another long pause, during which I perceived a drop or two trickle from Catherine’s cheek to the flags. Is she sorry for her shameful conduct?一I asked myself That will be a novelty: but she may come to the point—as she will—I sha’n’t help her! No, she felt small trouble regarding any subject, save her own concerns. “Oh, dear!” she cried at last, “I’m very unhappy!” ‘A pity” observed I. “Abu’re hard to please; so many friends and so few cares, and can’t make yourself content!” -73- Wuthering Heights “Nelly, will you keep a secret for me?” she pursued, kneeling down by me, and lifting her winsome eyes to my face with that sort of look which turns off bad temper, even when one has all the right in the world to indulge it. “Is it worth keeping?” I inquired, less sulkily uYes, and it worries me, and I must let it out! I want to know what I should do. To-day; Edgar Linton has asked me to marry him, and Pve given him an answer. No\^ before I tell you whether it was a consent or denial, you tell me which it ought to have been.” “Really Miss Catherine, how can I know?” I replied, “To be sure, considering the exhibition you performed in his presence this afternoon, I might say it would be wise to refuse him: since he asked you after that, he must either be hopelessly stupid or a venturesome fool.” “If you talk so, I won’t tell you any more,” she returned, peevishly rising to her feet. “I accepted him, Nelly Be quick, and say whether I was wrong!w “Ydu accepted him! Then what good is it discussing the matter? %u have pledged your word, and cannot retract.” “But say whether I should have done so~ o!” she exclaimed in an irritated tone; chafing her hands together, and frowning. “There are many things to be considered before that question can be answered properly,w I said, sententiously “First and foremost, do you love Mr. Edgar?” “Who can help it? Of course I do,” she answered. Then I put her through the following catechism: for a girl of twenty-two it was not injudicious. “Why do you love him, Miss Cathy?” “Nonsense, I do—that’s sufficient.,^ “By no means; you must say why?” “Wfell, because he is handsome, and pleasant to be with.” “Bad!” was my commentary 'And because he is young and cheerful.” -74- CHAPTER 9 "Bad, Still.,, ‘And because he loves me.” 4为系统(区域、负荷点)在系统状态下的切负荷量,MW。 (36)系统(区域、负荷点)电量不足期望值 EENS(expected energy not supplied) (MW ? h): (13-35) Psk (r) X CSk (r)dr (37) 系统(区域、负荷点)严重程度指标SKseverity index)(系统分): SI = X 60 total 其中,L,<>ul为系统(区域、负荷点)的总负荷,MW。 (38) 系统(区域、负荷点)供电可用率SACservice availability): SA=1-^NS 需要说明的是,基于不同的预测时间步长《进行指标计算,即可得到相应的时限类指标 (短期指标与长期指标)。 EENS = (13-36) (13-37) (13-38) total 13.4电力系统元件的运行可靠性模型 电力系统运行中,重要发电机的停运会导致系统频率严重下降以及其他发电机组的跳 闸,频率严重失控时甚至导致系统频率崩溃;重要输变电设备的停运会引起系统潮流转移, 416 第13章电力系统运行可靠性 从而诱发大面积停电事故。因此,基于设备历史运行情况及其在未来短时间内的运行条件, 预测设备及电网的短期可靠性水平,对于指导调度员做出正确的控制决策从而降低大停电 风险、提高电力系统的运行可靠性具有重要作用。 在电力系统规划中,常采用恒定的设备故障率来计算系统中长期的可靠性水平,因为这 个长期统计平均值是设备长期运行情况的反映,如 图13.4.1虚线所示。然而恒定的平均故障率无法 描述历史运行条件和未来运行条件对设备停运风 险和系统运行可靠性的影响。例如连锁故障,按照 常规的元件可靠性模型,连锁故障的发生概率是基 于统计平均值的单重故障概率的乘积,数值非常 小,应该是百年不遇的事故。然而近年来这类故障 时常发生,造成理论与实际的严重脱离。原因在于 元件的可靠性建模出了问题,元件的停运概率应该 随着系统运行条件的变化而改变,如图13. 4. 1实线 所示。 图13.4.1可靠性模型参数(虚线是 平均值) 元件的运行可靠性模型综合考虑了运行条件和研究的时间尺度对元件停运概率的影 响。根据元件不同停运模式的机理,可建立相应的停运模型,如保护动作致停运模型、偶然 失效模型和老化失效模型等。应根据运行可靠性评估的应用场景选用合适的模型。若各停 运模型反映的停运事件相互独立,那么可以根据式(13-39)所示的可靠性逻辑串联关系对 它们进行组合使用: Ptoui = 1 - II(1 - P>> (13-39) 其中,为元件总的停运概率;P,为第i种停运模式下元件的停运概率,例如保护动作致 停运概率、偶然失效概率、老化失效概率等;《为考虑的停运模式的个数。本节主要介绍元 件的保护动作致停运模型和偶然失效模型,老化失效模型可参阅文献[7]。 13. 4.1保护动作致停运模型 1.线路过负荷保护动作模型 过负荷跳闸所引起的元件相继断开是一类可造成大面积停电的连锁故障。输电线路、 变压器等电力设备都装设有过负荷保护装置,然而保护装置的触发值的误差使得保护动作 切除设备存在不确定性。 过负荷继电保护系统主要由保护电流互感器和继电保护装置构成。一方面,保护电流 互感器的电流测量值存在误差,误差范围由该电流互感器的准确级决定;另一方面,继电保 护装置的触发值也存在误差,国标《继电器及装置基本试验方法(GB/T 7261—2000)》给出 了继电器装置极限误差的试验方法,实际产品的极限误差在±6%左右。设整个保护系统存 在的触发电流值L误差为±ei,并服从均值为'_,标准差为a,,范围为[Zse.od-e,), Ul+e,)]的截尾正态分布,其密度函数为 Jset 茫[LetO(l —Si),Jsetod +£l)] Iset) * 1 「 ( ^set IsetO )~] t r T z -l \ t z i | ---- exp------- I, e L-lSetO(l — ei),I?eto(l+ei)」 I Off! 72^ L 2ffI 」 (13-40) 13.4电力系统元件的运行可靠性模型 417 a =(I)

eauty! I should scarcely have known you: you look like a lady now Isabella Linton is not to be compared with her, is she, Frances?” “Isabella has not her natural advantages,w replied his wife, “but she must mind and not grow wild again here. Ellen, help Miss Catherine off with her things—Stay dear, you will disarrange your curls—let me untie your hat.” I removed the habit, and there shone forth beneath a grand plaid silk frock, white trousers, and burnished shoes; and, while her eyes sparkled joyfully when the dogs came bounding up to welcome her, she dared hardly touch them lest they should fawn upon her splendid garments. She kissed me gently: I was all flour making the Christmas cake, and it would not have done to give me a hug; and then she looked round for Heathcliff Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw watched anxiously their meeting; thinking it would enable them to judge, in some measure, what grounds they had for hoping to succeed in separating the two friends. Heathcliff was hard to discover, at first. If he were careless, -49- Wuthering Heights and uncared for, before Catherine’s absence, he had been ten times more so since. Nobody but I even did him the kindness to call him a dirty boy and bid him wash himself once a week; and children of his age seldom have a natural pleasure in soap and water. Therefore, not to mention his clothes, which had seen three months, service in mire and dust, and his thick uncombed hair, the surface of his face and hands was dismally beclouded. He might well skulk behind the settle, on beholding such a bright, graceful damsel enter the house, instead of a rough-headed counterpart of himself^ as he expected. “Is Heathcliff not here?” she demanded, pulling off her gloves, and displaying fingers wonderfully whitened with doing nothing and staying indoors. “Heathcliff^ you may come forward/5 cried Mr. Hindley enjoying his discomfiture, and gratified to see what a forbidding young blackguard he would be compelled to present himself “Ybu may come and wish Miss Catherine welcome, like the other servants.” Cathy catching a glimpse of her friend in his concealment, flew to embrace him; she bestowed seven or eight kisses on his cheek within the second, and then stopped, and drawing back, burst into a laugh, exclaiming, “Why how very black and cross you look! and how—how funny and grim! But that’s because Fm used to Edgar and Isabella Linton. Well, Heathcliff^ have you forgotten me?” She had some reason to put the question, for shame and pride threw double gloom over his countenance, and kept him immovable. “Shake hands, Heathcliff/’ said Mr. Earnshaw condescendingly; “once in a way that is permitted.” “I shall not,” replied the boy finding his tongue at last; “I shall not stand to be laughed at. I shall not bear it!” And he would have broken from the circle, but Miss Cathy seized him again. “I did not mean to laugh at you,” she said, “I could not hinder myself: Heathcliff^ shake hands at least! What are you sulky for? It was only that you looked odd. If you wash your face and brush your hair, it will be all right: but you are so dirty!” -50- CHAPTER 7 She gazed concernedly at the dusky fingers she held in her own, and also at her dress; which she feared had gained no embellishment from its contact with his. “Abu neednY have touched me!” he answered, following her eye and snatching away his hand. “I shall be as dirty as I please: and I like to be dirty and I will be dirty” With that he dashed headforemost out of the room, amid the merriment of the master and mistress, and to the serious disturbance of Catherine; who could not comprehend how her remarks should have produced such an exhibition of bad temper. After playing lady’s maid to the new-comer, and putting my cakes in the oven, and making the house and kitchen cheerful with great fires, befitting Christmas-eve, I prepared to sit down and amuse myself by singing carols, all alone; regardless of Joseph’s affirmations that he considered the merry tunes I chose as next door to songs. He had retired to private prayer in his chamber, and Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw were engaging Miss/s attention by sundry gay trifles bought for her to present to the little Lintons, as an acknowledgment of their kindness. They had invited them to spend the morrow at Wuthering Heights, and the invitation had been accepted, on one condition: Mrs. Linton begged that her darlings might be kept carefully apart from that “naughty swearing boy\ Under these circumstances I remained solitary I smelt the rich scent of the heating spices; and admired the shining kitchen utensils, the polished clock, decked in holly the silver mugs ranged on a tray ready to be filled with mulled ale for supper; and above all, the speckless purity of my particular care一the scoured and well- swept floor. I gave due inward applause to every object, and then I remembered how old Earnshaw used to come in when all was tidied, and call me a cant lass, and slip a shilling into my hand as a Christmas-box; and from that I went on to think of his fondness for Heathcliff^ and his dread lest he should suffer neglect after death had removed him: and that naturally led me to consider the poor lad’s situation now; and from singing I changed my mind to -51- Wuthering Heights crying. It struck me soon, however, there would be more sense in endeavouring to repair some of his wrongs than shedding tears over them: I got up and walked into the court to seek him. He was not far; I found him smoothing the glossy coat of the new pony in the stable, and feeding the other beasts, according to custom. “Make haste, Heathcliff!” I said, uthe kitchen is so comfortable; and Joseph is up-stairs: make haste, and let me dress you smart before Miss Cathy comes out, and then you can sit together, with the whole hearth to yourselves, and have a long chatter till bedtime.” He proceeded with his task, and never turned his head towards me. “Come—are you coming?^^ I continued, “There’s a little cake for each of you, nearly enough; and you’ll need halfan-hour’s donning.^^ I waited five minutes, but getting no answer left him. Catherine supped with her brother and sister-in-law: Joseph and I joined at an unsociable meal, seasoned with reproofs on one side and sauciness on the other. His cake and cheese remained on the table all night for the fairies. He managed to continue work till nine o’clock,and then marched dumb and dour to his chamber. Cathy sat up late, having a world of things to order for the reception of her new friends: she came into the kitchen once to speak to her old one; but he was gone, and she only stayed to ask what was the matter with him, and then went back. In the morning he rose early; and, as it was a holiday; carried his ill-humour onto the moors; not re- appearing till the family were departed for church. Fasting and reflection seemed to have brought him to a better spirit. He hung about me for a while, and having screwed up his courage, exclaimed abruptly~~'‘Nelly make me decent,Fm going to be good”. “High time, Heathcliff/’ I said, “you have grieved Catherine: she’s sorry she ever came home, I daresay! It looks as if you envied her, because she is more thought of than you.” The notion of envying Catherine was incomprehensible to him, but the notion of grieving her he understood clearly enough. -52 - CHAPTER 7 “Did she say she was grieved?” he inquired, looking very serious. “She cried when I told her you were off again this morning.w “Wfell, I cried last night,M he returned, “and I had more reason to cry than she.” uYes: you had the reason of going to bed with a proud heart and an empty stomach,M said I. “Proud people breed sad sorrows for themselves. But, if you be ashamed of your touchiness, you must ask pardon, mind, when she comes in. Vou must go up and offer to kiss her, and say~~you know best what to say; only do it heartily and not as if you thought her converted into a stranger by her grand dress. And now, though I have dinner to get ready Uli steal time to arrange you so that Edgar Linton shall look quite a doll beside you: and that he does. Vou are younger, and yet, Fll be bound, you are taller and twice as broad across the shoulders; you could knock him down in a twinkling; don’t you feel that you could?” Heathcliff’s face brightened a moment; then it was overcast afresh, and he sighed. “But, Nelly if I knocked him down twenty times, that wouldn’t make him less handsome or me more so. I wish I had light hair and a fair skin, and was dressed and behaved as well, and had a chance of being as rich as he will be!” ‘And cried for mamma at every turn,” I added, “and trembled if a country lad heaved his fist against you, and sat at home all day for a shower of rain. Oh, Heathcliffi you are showing a poor spirit! Come to the glass, and I’ll let you see what you should wish. Do you mark those two lines between your eyes; and those thick brows, that, instead of rising arched, sink in the middle; and that couple of black fiends, so deeply buried, who never open their windows boldly; but lurk glinting under them, like deviFs spies? Wish and learn to smooth away the surly wrinkles, to raise your lids frankly; and change the fiends to confident, innocent angels, suspecting and doubting nothing, and always seeing friends where they are not sure of foes. Don’t get the expression of a vicious cur -53- Wuthering Heights that appears to know the kicks it gets are its desert, and yet hates all the world, as well as the kicker, for what it suffers.” “In other words, I must wish for Edgar Lintorfs great blue eyes and even forehead,w he replied. “I do—and that won’t help me to them.,, t6A good heart will help you to a bonny face, my lad,” I continued, “if you were a regular black; and a bad one will turn the bonniest into something worse than ugly And now that we’ve done washing, and combing, and sulking—tell me whether you don’t think yourself rather handsome? I’ll tell you, I do. Ybu’re fit for a prince in disguise. Who knows but your father was Emperor of China, and your mother an Indian queen, each of them able to buy up, with one week’s income, Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange together? And you were kidnapped by wicked sailors and brought to England. Were I in your place, I would frame high notions of my birth; and the thoughts of what I was should give me courage and dignity to support the oppressions of a little farmerr’ So I chattered on; and Heathcliff gradually lost his frown and began to look quite pleasant, when all at once our conversation was interrupted by a rumbling sound moving up the road and entering the court. He ran to the window and I to the door, just in time to behold the two Lintons descend from the family carriage, smothered in cloaks and furs, and the Earnshaws dismount from their horses: they often rode to church in winter. Catherine took a hand of each of the children, and brought them into the house and set them before the fire, which quickly put colour into their white faces. I urged my companion to hasten now and show his amiable humour, and he willingly obeyed; but ill luck would have it that, as he opened the door leading from the kitchen on one side, Hindley opened it on the other. They met, and the master, irritated at seeing him clean and cheerful, or, perhaps, eager to keep his promise to Mrs. Linton, shoved him back with a sudden thrust, and angrily bade Joseph “keep the fellow out of the room—send him into the -54 - CHAPTER 7 garret till dinner is over. He’ll be cramming his fingers in the tarts and stealing the fruit, if left alone with them a minute.” “Nay sir,” I could not avoid answering, “he’ll touch nothing, not he: and I suppose he must have his share of the dainties as well as we.” “He shall have his share of my hand, if I catch him downstairs till dark,” cried Hindleg “Begone, you vagabond! What! you are attempting the coxcomb, are you? Wait till I get hold of those elegant locks—see if I won’t pull them a bit longer!” “They are long enough already,M observed Master Linton, peeping from the doorway; “I wonder they don’t make his head ache. It’s like a colt’s mane over his eyes!” He ventured this remark without any intention to insult; but Heathcliff’s violent nature was not prepared to endure the appearance of impertinence from one whom he seemed to hate, even then, as a rival. He seized a tureen of hot apple sauce, the first thing that came under his gripe, and dashed it full against the speaker’s face and neck; who instantly commenced a lament that brought Isabella and Catherine hurrying to the place. Mr. Earnshaw snatched up the culprit directly and conveyed him to his chamber; where, doubtless, he administered a rough remedy to cool the fit of passion, for he reappeared red and breathless. I got the dishcloth, and rather spitefully scrubbed Edgar’s nose and mouth, affirming it served him right for meddling. His sister began weeping to go home, and Cathy stood by confounded, blushing for all. “Ybu should not have spoken to him!,, she expostulated with Master Linton. “He was in a bad temper, and now Ydu’ve spoilt your visit; and he’ll be flogged: I hate him to be flogged! I can’t eat my dinner. Why did you speak to him, Edgar?” “I didn’t,” sobbed the youth, escaping from my hands, and finishing the remainder of the purification with his cambric pocket-handkerchief “I promised mamma that I wouldn’t say one word to him, and I didn’t.” "'Well, don’t cry;” replied Catherine, contemptuously; “you’re -55- Wuthering Heights not killed. Don’t make more mischief; my brother is coming: be quiet! Hush, Isabella! Has anybody hurt you?J, “There, there, children—to your seats!” cried Hindley bustling in. “That brute of a lad has warmed me nicely Next time, Master Edgar, take the law into your own fists一it will give you an appetite!” The little party recovered its equanimity at sight of the fragrant feast. They were hungry after their ride, and easily consoled, since no real harm had befallen them. Mr. Earnshaw carved bountiful platefuls, and the mistress made them merry with lively talk. I waited behind her chair, and was pained to behold Catherine, with dry eyes and an indifferent air, commence cutting up the wing of a goose before her. ‘An unfeeling child,” I thought to myselfj “how lightly she dismisses her old playmate’s troubles. I could not have imagined her to be so selfish.” She lifted a mouthful to her lips: then she set it down again: her cheeks flushed, and the tears gushed over them. She slipped her fork to the floor, and hastily dived under the cloth to conceal her emotion. I did not call her unfeeling long; for I perceived she was in purgatory throughout the day and wearying to find an opportunity of getting by herselfj or paying a visit to Heathcliffj who had been locked up by the master: as I discovered, on endeavouring to introduce to him a private mess of victuals. In the evening we had a dance. Cathy begged that he might be liberated then, as Isabella Linton had no partner: her entreaties were vain, and I was appointed to supply the deficiency We got rid of all gloom in the excitement of the exercise, and our pleasure was increased by the arrival of the Gimmerton band, mustering fifteen strong: a trumpet, a trombone, clarionets, bassoons, French horns, and a bass viol, besides singers. They go the rounds of all the respectable houses, and receive contributions every Christmas, and we esteemed it a first-rate treat to hear them. After the usual carols had been sung, we set them to songs and glees. Mrs. Earnshaw loved the music, and so they gave us plenty Catherine loved it too: but she said it sounded sweetest at -56- CHAPTER 7 the top of the steps, and she went up in the dark: I followed. They shut the house door below, never noting our absence, it was so full of people. She made no stay at the stairs’-head,but mounted farther, to the garret where Heathcliff was confined, and called him. He stubbornly declined answering for a while: she persevered, and finally persuaded him to hold communion with her through the boards. I let the poor things converse unmolested, till I supposed the songs were going to cease, and the singers to get some refreshment: then I clambered up the ladder to warn her. Instead of finding her outside, I heard her voice within. The little monkey had crept by the skylight of one garret, along the roofj into the skylight of the other, and it was with the utmost difficulty I could coax her out again. When she did come, Heathcliff came with her, and she insisted that I should take him into the kitchen, as my fellow-servant had gone to a neighbour’s, to be removed from the sound of our “devil’s psalmody”,as it pleased him to call it. I told them I intended by no means to encourage their tricks: but as the prisoner had never broken his fast since yesterday’s dinner, I would wink at his cheating Mr. Hindley that once. He went down: I set him a stool by the fire, and offered him a quantity of good things: but he was sick and could eat little, and my attempts to entertain him were thrown away He leant his two elbows on his knees, and his chin on his hands, and remained wrapt in dumb meditation. On my inquiring the subject of his thoughts, he answered gravely—“I’m trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back. I don’t care how long I wait, if I can only do it at last. I hope he will not die before I do”! “For shame, Heathcliff!” said I. “It is for God to punish wicked people; we should learn to forgive.” “No, God won’t have the satisfaction that I shall,” he returned, “I only wish I knew the best way! Let me alone, and I’ll plan it out: while Fm thinking of that I don’t feel pain.” “But, Mr. Lockwood, I forget these tales cannot divert you. I’m annoyed how I should dream of chattering on at such a rate; -57- Wuthering Heights and your gruel cold, and you nodding for bed! I could have told Heathcliff’s history all that you need hear, in half a dozen words.” 木 木* 木 本 本 Thus interrupting herself the housekeeper rose, and proceeded to lay aside her sewing; but I felt incapable of moving from the hearth, and I was very far from nodding. “Sit still, Mrs. Dean,” I cried; “do sit still another half hour. %u’ve done just right to tell the story leisurely That is the method I like; and you must finish it in the same style. I am interested in every character you have mentioned, more or less.” “The clock is on the stroke of eleven, sir.” “No matter一I’m not accustomed to go to bed in the long hours. One or two is early enough for a person who lies till ten.” shouldn’t lie till ten. There’s the very prime of the morning gone long before that time. A person who has not done one-half his da/s work by ten o’clock,runs a chance of leaving the other half undone.” “Nevertheless, Mrs. Dean, resume your chair; because to- morrow I intend lengthening the night till afternoon. I prognosticate for myself an obstinate cold, at least.” “I hope not, sir. Well, you must allow me to leap over some three years; during that space Mrs. Earnshaw—” “No, no, Fll allow nothing of the sort! Are you acquainted with the mood of mind in which, if you were seated alone, and the cat licking its kitten on the rug before you, you would watch the operation so intently that puss’s neglect of one ear would put you seriously out of temper?” aA terribly lazy mood, I should say” “On the contrary a tiresomely active one. It is mine, at present; and, therefore, continue minutely I perceive that people in these regions acquire over people in towns the value that a spider in a dungeon does over a spider in a cottage, to their various occupants; and yet the deepened attraction is not entirely owing to the situation of the looker-on. They do live more in earnest, -58- CHAPTER 7 more in themselves, and less in surface change, and frivolous external things. I could fancy a love for life here almost possible; and I was a fixed unbeliever in any love of a year’s standing. One state resembles setting a hungry man down to a single dish, on which he may concentrate his entire appetite and do it justice; the other, introducing him to a table laid out by French cooks: he can perhaps extract as much enjoyment from the whole; but each part is a mere atom in his regard and remembrance.M “Oh! here we are the same as anywhere else, when you get to know us,” observed Mrs. Dean, somewhat puzzled at my speech. “Excuse me,” I responded, “you,my good friend, are a striking evidence against that assertion. Excepting a few provincialisms of slight consequence, you have no marks of the manners which I am habituated to consider as peculiar to your class. I am sure you have thought a great deal more than the generality of servants think. You have been compelled to cultivate your reflective faculties for want of occasions for frittering your life away in silly trifles.” Mrs. Dean laughed. “I certainly esteem myself a steady; reasonable kind of body;” she said, “not exactly from living among the hills and seeing one set of faces, and one series of actions, from year’s end to year’s end; but I have undergone sharp discipline, which has taught me wisdom; and then, I have read more than you would fancy; Mr. Lockwood. %u could not open a book in this library that I have not looked into, and got something out of also: unless it be that range of Greek and Latin, and that of French; and those I know one from another: it is as much as you can expect of a poor man’s daughter. However, if I am to follow my story in true gossip’s fashion, I had better go on; and instead of leaping three years, I will be content to pass to the next summer—the summer of 1778, that is nearly twenty-three years ago.” -5少 CHAPTER 8 On the morning of a fine June day my first bonny little nursling, and the last of the ancient Earnshaw stock, was born. We were busy with the hay in a far-away field, when the girl that usually brought our breakfasts came running an hour too soon across the meadow and up the lane, calling me as she ran. “Oh, such a grand bairn!” she panted out, “The finest lad that ever breathed! But the doctor says missis must go: he says she’s been in a consumption these many months. I heard him tell Mr. Hindley: and now she has nothing to keep her, and she’ll be dead before winter, ^ou must come home directly Vbu’re to nurse it, Nelly: to feed it with sugar and milk, and take care of it day and night. I wish I were you, because it will be all yours when there is no missis!” “But is she very I asked, flinging down my rake and tying my bonnet. “I guess she is; yet she looks bravely;” replied the girl, “and she talks as if she thought of living to see it grow a man. She’s out of her head for joy, it’s such a beauty! If I were her I’m certain I should not die: I should get better at the bare sight of it, in spite of Kenneth. I was fairly mad at him. Dame Archer brought the cherub down to master, in the house, and his face just began to light up, then the old croaker steps forward, and says he— “Earnshax^ it’s a blessing your wife has been spared to leave you this son. When she came, I felt convinced we shouldn’t keep her long; and now, I must tell you, the winter will probably finish her. Don’t take on, and fret about it too much: it can’t be helped. And besides, you should have known better than to choose such a rush of a lass”! -6o- CHAPTER 8 "And what did the master answer?” I inquired. “I think he swore: but I didn’t mind him, I was straining to see the bairn,” and she bc^gan again to describe it rapturously I, as zealous as herself^ hurried eagerly home to admire, on my part; though I was very sad for Hindley’s sake. He had room in his heart only for two idols—his wife and himself: he doted on both, and adored one, and I couldn’t conceive how he would bear the loss. When we got to Wuthering Heights, there he stood at the front door; and, as I passed in, I asked, “how was the baby?” “Nearly ready to run about, Nell!” he replied, putting on a cheerful smile. 'And the mistress?” I ventured to inquire; “the doctor says she’s—” “Damn the doctor!he interrupted, reddening, “Frances is quite right: she’ll be perfectly well by this time next week. Are you going up-stairs? will you tell her that Pll come, if she’ll promise not to talk. I left her because she would not hold her tongue; and she must—tell her Mr. Kenneth says she must be quiet.” I delivered this message to Mrs. Earnshaw; she seemed in flighty spirits, and replied merrily “I hardly spoke a word, Ellen, and there he has gone out twice, crying. Well, say I promise I won’t speak: but that does not bind me not to laugh at him!” Poor soul! Till within a week of her death that gay heart never failed her; and her husband persisted doggedly; nay, furiously; in affirming her health improved every day When Kenneth warned him that his medicines were useless at that stage of the malady and he needn’t put him to further expense by attending her, he retorted, “I know you need not—she’s well—she does not want any more attendance from you! She never was in a consumption. It was a fever; and it is gone: her pulse is as slow as mine nox^ and her cheek as cool.” He told his wife the same story; and she seemed to believe him; but one night, while leaning on his shoulder, in the act of -6l- Wuthering Heights saying she thought she should be able to get up to-morrow; a fit of coughing took her—a very slight one—he raised her in his arms; she put her two hands about his neck, her face changed, and she was dead. As the girl had anticipated, the child Hareton fell wholly into my hands. Mr. Earnshaw; provided he saw him healthy and never heard him cry; was contented, as far as regarded him. For himself, he grew desperate: his sorrow was of that kind that will not lament. He neither wept nor prayed; he cursed and defied: execrated God and man, and gave himself up to reckless dissipation. The servants could not bear his tyrannical and evil conduct long: Joseph and I were the only two that would stay I had not the heart to leave my charge; and besides, you knov^ I had been his foster-sister, and excused his behaviour more readily than a stranger would. Joseph remained to hector over tenants and labourers; and because it was his vocation to be where he had plenty of wickedness to reprove. The master’s bad ways and bad companions formed a pretty example for Catherine and HeathclifE His treatment of the latter was enough to make a fiend of a saint. And, truly it appeared as if the lad were possessed of something diabolical at that period. He delighted to witness Hindley degrading himself past redemption; and became daily more notable for savage sullenness and ferocity I could not half tell what an infernal house we had. The curate dropped calling, and nobody decent came near us, at last; unless Edgar Linton’s visits to Miss Cathy might be an exception. At fifteen she was the queen of the country-side; she had no peer; and she did turn out a haughty headstrong creature! I own I did not like her, after infancy was past; and I vexed her frequently by trying to bring down her arrogance: she never took an aversion to me, though. She had a wondrous constancy to old attachments: even Heathcliff kept his hold on her affections unalterably; and young Linton, with all his superiority; found it difficult to make an equally deep impression. He was my late master: that is his -62- CHAPTER 8 portrait over the fireplace. It used to hang on one side, and his wife’s on the other; but hers has been removed, or else you might see something of what she was. Can you make that out? Mrs. Dean raised the candle, and I discerned a soft-featured face, exceedingly resembling the young lady at the Heights, but more pensive and amiable in expression. It formed a sweet picture. The long light hair curled slightly on the temples; the eyes were large and serious; the figure almost too graceful. I did not marvel how Catherine Earnshaw could forget her first friend for such an individual. I marvelled much how he, with a mind to correspond with his person, could fancy my idea of Catherine Earnshaw 4A very agreeable portrait,M I observed to the house-keeper, “Is it like?" “Yes,” she answered, “but he looked better when he was animated; that is his everyday countenance: he wanted spirit in general.” Catherine had kept up her acquaintance with the Lintons since her five-weeks’ residence among them; and as she had no temptation to show her rough side in their company and had the sense to be ashamed of being rude where she experienced such invariable courtesy; she imposed unwittingly on the old lady and gentleman by her ingenious cordiality; gained the admiration of Isabella, and the heart and soul of her brother: acquisitions that flattered her from the first—for she was full of ambition—and led her to adopt a double character without exactly intending to deceive any one. In the place where she heard HeathclifF termed a “vulgar young ruffian” and “worse than a brute”,she took care not to act like him; but at home she had small inclination to practise politeness that would only be laughed at, and restrain an unruly nature when it would bring her neither credit nor praise. Mr. Edgar seldom mustered courage to visit Wuthering Heights openly He had a terror of Earnshaw’s reputation, and shrunk from encountering him; and yet he was always received with our -63- Wuthering Heights best attempts at civility: the master himself avoided offending him, knowing why he came; and if he could not be gracious, kept out of the way I rather think his appearance there was distasteful to Catherine; she was not artful, never played the coquette, and had evidently an objection to her two friends meeting at all; for when Heathcliff expressed contempt of Linton in his presence, she could not half coincide, as she did in his absence; and when Linton evinced disgust and antipathy to Heathcliffi she dared not treat his sentiments with indifference, as if depreciation of her playmate were of scarcely any consequence to her. Fve had many a laugh at her perplexities and untold troubles, which she vainly strove to hide from my mockery That sounds ill-natured: but she was so proud it became really impossible to pity her distresses, till she should be chastened into more humility She did bring herself finally to confess, and to confide in me: there was not a soul else that she might fashion into an adviser. Mr. Hindley had gone from home one afternoon, and Heathcliff presumed to give himself a holiday on the strength of it. He had reached the age of sixteen then, I think, and without having bad features, or being deficient in intellect, he contrived to convey an impression of inward and outward repulsiveness that his present aspect retains no traces o£ In the first place, he had by that time lost the benefit of his early education: continual hard work, begun soon and concluded late, had extinguished any curiosity he once possessed in pursuit of knowledge, and any love for books or learning. His childhood’s sense of superiority; instilled into him by the favours of old Mr. Earnshaw; was faded away He struggled long to keep up an equality with Catherine in her studies, and yielded with poignant though silent regret: but he yielded completely; and there was no prevailing on him to take a step in the way of moving upward, when he found he must, necessarily; sink beneath his former level. Then personal appearance sympathised with mental deterioration: he acquired a slouching gait and ignoble look; his naturally reserved disposition -6个 CHAPTER 8 was exaggerated into an almost idiotic excess of unsociable moroseness; and he took a grim pleasure, apparentlj; in exciting the aversion rather than the esteem of his few acquaintances. Catherine and he were constant companions still at his seasons of respite from labour; but he had ceased to express his fondness for her in words, and recoiled with angry suspicion from her girlish caresses, as if conscious there could be no gratification in lavishing such marks of affection on him. On the before-named occasion he came into the house to announce his intention of doing nothing, while I was assisting Miss Cathy to arrange her dress: she had not reckoned on his taking it into his head to be idle; and imagining she would have the whole place to herselfj she managed, by some means, to inform Mr. Edgar of her brother’s absence, and was then preparing to receive him. “Cathy; are you busy this afternoon?” asked Heathcliffi ‘Are you going anywhere?” “No, it is raining/5 she answered. “Why have you that silk frock on, then?” he said, “Nobody coming here, I hope?” “Not that I know of/’ stammered Miss, “but you should be in the field no\^ Heathcliff It is an hour past dinnertime: I thought you were gone.” “Hindley does not often free us from his accursed presence/ observed the boy; “I’ll not work any more to-day: I’ll stay with you.” “Oh,but Joseph will she suggested, “you’d better go!” ‘Joseph is loading lime on the further side of Penistone Crags; it will take him till dark, and he’ll never know” So, saying, he lounged to the fire, and sat down. Catherine reflected an instant, with knitted brows—she found it needful to smooth the way for an intrusion. “Isabella and Edgar Linton talked of calling this afternoon,M she said, at the conclusion of a minute’s silence, it rains, I hardly expect them; but they may come, and if they do, you run the risk of being scolded for no good.” -65- Wuthering Heights “Order Ellen to say you are engaged, Cathy” he persisted, “don’t turn me out for those pitiful, silly friends of yours! I’m on the point, sometimes, of complaining that they—but I’ll not—” “That they what?” cried Catherine, gazing at him with a troubled countenance. “Oh, Nelly!” she added petulantly; jerking her head away from my hands, “Vdu’ve combed my hair quite out of curl! That’s enough; let me alone. What are you on the point of complaining about, Heathcliff?” “Nothing~only look at the almanack on that wall;” he pointed to a framed sheet hanging near the window; and continued, “The crosses are for the evenings you have spent with the Lintons, the dots for those spent with me. Do you see? Fve marked every day” uYes—very foolish: as if I took notice!” replied Catherine, in a peevish tone. ‘And where is the sense of that?” “lb show that I do take notice,” said Heathcliff ‘And should I always be sitting with you?” she demanded, growing more irritated. “What good do I get? What do you talk about? You might be dumb, or a baby for anything you say to amuse me, or for anything you do, either!” Uybu never told me before that I talked too little, or that you disliked my company Cathy!,, exclaimed Heathcliff, in much agitation. “It’s no company at all, when people know nothing and say nothing,n she muttered. Her companion rose up, but he hadn’t time to express his feelings further, for a horse’s feet were heard on the flags, and having knocked gently young Linton entered, his face brilliant with delight at the unexpected summon she had received. Doubtless Catherine marked the difference between her friends, as one came in and the other went out. The contrast resembled what you see in exchanging a bleak, hilly coal country for a beautiful fertile valley; and his voice and greeting were as opposite as his aspect. He had a sweet, low manner of speaking, and pronounced his words as you do: that’s less gruff than we talk here, and softer. -66- CHAPTER 8 “I’m not come too soon, am I?” he said, casting a look at me: I had begun to wipe the plate, and tidy some drawers at the far end in the dresser. “No,” answered Catherine. “What are you doing there, Nelly?,, “My work, Miss,” I replied. (Mr. Hindley had given me directions to make a third party in any private visits Linton chose to pay) She stepped behind me and whispered crossly “THake yourself and your dusters off; when company are in the house, servants don’t commence scouring and cleaning in the room where they are!” “It’s a good opportunity now that master is away” I answered aloud, “he hates me to be fidgeting over these things in his presence. Fm sure Mr. Edgar will excuse me.” “I hate you to be fidgeting in my presence,exclaimed the young lady imperiously not allowing her guest time to speak: she had failed to recover her equanimity since the little dispute with HeathclifE “I’m sorry for it, Miss Catherine,n was my response; and I proceeded assiduously with my occupation. She, supposing Edgar could not see her, snatched the cloth from my hand, and pinched me, with a prolonged wrench, very spitefully on the arm. I’ve said I did not love her, and rather relished mortifying her vanity now and then: besides, she hurt me extremely; so I started up from my knees, and screamed out, “Oh, Miss, that’s a nasty trick! You have no right to nip me, and Pm not going to bear it.” “I didn’t touch you, you lying creature!” cried she, her fingers tingling to repeat the act, and her ears red with rage. She never had power to conceal her passion, it always set her whole complexion in a blaze. “What’s that, then?” I retorted, showing a decided purple witness to refute her. She stamped her foot, wavered a moment, and then, irresistibly -67- Wuthering Heights impelled by the naughty spirit within her, slapped me on the cheek: a stinging blow that filled both eyes with water. “Catherine, love! Catherine!” interposed Linton, greatly shocked at the double fault of falsehood and violence which his idol had committed. “Leave the room, Ellen!” she repeated, trembling all over. Little Hareton, who followed me everywhere, and was sitting near me on the floor, at seeing my tears commenced crying himselfj and sobbed out complaints against “wicked aunt Cath/’, which drew her fury on to his unlucky head: she seized his shoulders, and shook him till the poor child waxed livid, and Edgar thoughtlessly laid hold of her hands to deliver him. In an instant one was wrung free, and the astonished young man felt it applied over his own ear in a way that could not be mistaken for jest. He drew back in consternation. I lifted Hareton in my arms, and walked off to the kitchen with him, leaving the door of communication open, for I was curious to watch how they would settle their disagreement. The insulted visitor moved to the spot where he had laid his hat, pale and with a quivering lip. “That’s right!” I said to myself “Take warning and begone! It’s a kindness to let you have a glimpse of her genuine disposition.” uWhere are you going?” demanded Catherine, advancing to the door. He swerved aside, and attempted to pass. “Abu must not go!” she exclaimed, energetically “I must and shall!” he replied in a subdued voice. “No,” she persisted, grasping the handle, “not yet, Edgar Linton: sit down; you shall not leave me in that temper. I should be miserable all night, and I won’t be miserable for you!” “Can I stay after you have struck me?” asked Linton. Catherine was mute. “Y)u’ve made me afraid and ashamed of you,” he continued, “I’ll not come here again!” Her eyes began to glisten and her lids to twinkle. -68- CHAPTER 8 'And you told a deliberate untruth!” he said. “I didn’t!” she cried, recovering her speech, “I did nothing deliberately Well, go, if you please―get away! And now Fll cry— Uli cry myself sick!” She dropped down on her knees by a chair, and set to weeping in serious earnest. Edgar persevered in his resolution as far as the court; there he lingered. I resolved to encourage him. “Miss is dreadfully wayward, sir,” I called out, 'As bad as any marred child: Ybu’t better be riding home, or else she will be sick, only to grieve us.” The soft thing looked askance through the window: he possessed the power to depart as much as a cat possesses the power to leave a mouse half killed, or a bird half eaten. Ah, I thought, there will be no saving him: he’s doomed, and flies to his fate! And so it was: he turned abruptly hastened into the house again, shut the door behind him; and when I went in a while after to inform them that Earnshaw had come home rabid drunk, ready to pull the whole place about our ears (his ordinary frame of mind in that condition), I saw the quarrel had merely effected a closer intimacy—had broken the outworks of youthful timidity; and enabled them to forsake the disguise of friendship, and confess themselves lovers. Intelligence of Mr. Hindle/s arrival drove Linton speedily to his horse, and Catherine to her chamber. I went to hide little Hareton, and to take the shot out of the master’s fowling-piece, which he was fond of playing with in his insane excitement, to the hazard of the lives of any who provoked, or even attracted his notice too much; and I had hit upon the plan of removing it, that he might do less mischief if he did go the length of firing the gun. 命 CHAPTER 9 He entered, vociferating oaths dreadful to hear; and caught me in the act of stowing his son away in the kitchen cupboard. Hareton was impressed with a wholesome terror of encountering either his wild beast’s fondness or his madman’s rage; for in one he ran a chance of being squeezed and kissed to death, and in the other of being flung into the fire, or dashed against the wall; and the poor thing remained perfectly quiet wherever I chose to put him. “There, Fve found it out at last!” cried Hindleg pulling me back by the skin of my neck, like a dog. “By heaven and hell, Yz)u’ve sworn between you to murder that child! I know how it is, now, that he is always out of my way But, with the help of Satan, I shall make you swallow the carving-knife, Nelly! ydu needn’t laugh; for Fve just crammed Kenneth, head-downmost, in the Black-horse marsh; and two is the same as one—and I want to kill some of you: I shall have no rest till I do!,^ “But I don’t like the carving-knife, Mr. Hindley;” I answered, “it has been cutting red herrings. Ft rather be shot, if you please.M “Ybu’t rather be damned!” he said, “and so you shall. No law in England can hinder a man from keeping his house decent, and mine’s abominable! Open your mouth.” He held the knife in his hand, and pushed its point between my teeth: but, for my part, I was never much afraid of his vagaries. I spat out, and affirmed it tasted detestably—I would not take it on any account. “Oh!” said he, releasing me, “I see that hideous little villain is not Hareton: I beg your pardon, Nell. If it be, he deserves flaying alive for not running to welcome me, and for screaming as if I were a goblin. Unnatural cub, come hither! Pll teach thee to impose on a good-hearted, deluded father. Now; don’t you think the lad -70- CHAPTER 9 would be handsomer cropped? It makes a dog fiercer, and I love something fierce—get me a scissors—something fierce and trim! Besides, it’s infernal affectation—devilish conceit it is, to cherish our ears—we’re asses enough without them. Hush, child, hush! Well then, it is my darling! wisht, dry thy eyes一there’s a joy; kiss me. What! it won’t? Kiss me, Hareton! Damn thee, kiss me! By God, as if I would rear such a monster! As sure asFm living, Fll break the brat’s neck.” Poor Hareton was squalling and kicking in his father’s arms with all his might, and redoubled his yells when he carried him up- stairs and lifted him over the banister. I cried out that he would frighten the child into fits, and ran to rescue him. As I reached them, Hindley leant forward on the rails to listen to a noise below; almost forgetting what he had in his hands. “Who is that?” he asked, hearing some one approaching the stairs’-foot. I leant forward also, for the purpose of signing to Heathcliff^ whose step I recognised, not to come further; and, at the instant when my eye quitted Hareton, he gave a sudden spring, delivered himself from the careless grasp that held him, and fell. There was scarcely time to experience a thrill of horror before we saw that the little wretch was safe. Heathcliff arrived underneath just at the critical moment; by a natural impulse he arrested his descent, and setting him on his feet, looked up to discover the author of the accident. A miser who has parted with a lucky lottery ticket for five shillings, and finds next day he has lost in the bargain five thousand pounds, could not show a blanker countenance than he did on beholding the figure of Mr. Earnshaw above. It expressed, plainer than words could do, the intensest anguish at having made himself the instrument of thwarting his own revenge. Had it been dark, I daresay he would have tried to remedy the mistake by smashing Hareton’s skull on the steps; but, we witnessed his salvation; and I was presently below with my precious charge pressed to my heart. Hindley descended more leisurely; sobered and abashed. -71- Wuthering Heights “It is your fault, Ellen,” he said, “you should have kept him out of sight: you should have taken him from me! Is he injured anywhere?” “Injured!” I cried angrily “if he is not killed, he’ll be an idiot! Oh! I wonder his mother does not rise from her grave to see how you use him. ybu’re worse than a heathen—treating your own flesh and blood in that manner!M He attempted to touch the child, who, on finding himself with me, sobbed off his terror directly At the first finger his father laid on him, however, he shrieked again louder than before, and struggled as if he would go into convulsions. “Abu shall not meddle with him!” I continued, “He hates you— they all hate you—that’s the truth! A happy family you have; and a pretty state you’re come to!” “I shall come to a prettier, yet, Nelly;” laughed the misguided man, recovering his hardness. ‘At present, convey yourself and him away And hark you, Heathcliff! clear you too quite from my reach and hearing. I wouldn’t murder you to-night; unless, perhaps, I set the house on fire: but that’s as my fancy goes.” While saying this he took a pint bottle of brandy from the dresser, and poured some into a tumbler. “Nay; don’t!” I entreated, “Mr. Hindleg do take warning. Have mercy on this unfortunate boy, if you care nothing for yourself!” 'Any one will do better for him than I shall,” he answered. “Have mercy on your own soul!” I said, endeavouring to snatch the glass from his hand. “Not I! On the contrary I shall have great pleasure in sending it to perdition to punish its Maker,M exclaimed the blasphemer. “Here’s to its hearty damnation!” He drank the spirits and impatiently bade us go; terminating his command with a sequel of horrid imprecations too bad to repeat or remember. “It’s a pity he cannot kill himself with drink,” observed Heathcliffi muttering an echo of curses back when the door was shut. “He’s doing his very utmost; but his constitution defies him. -72- CHAPTER 9 Mr. Kenneth says he would wager his mare that he’ll outlive any man on this side Gimmerton, and go to the grave a hoary sinner; unless some happy chance out of the common course befall him.” I went into the kitchen, and sat down to lull my little lamb to sleep. Heathcliff^ as I thought, walked through to the barn. It turned out afterwards that he only got as far as the other side the settle, when he flung himself on a bench by the wall, removed from the fire and remained silent. I was rocking Hareton on my knee, and humming a song that began,— It was far in the night, and the bairnies grat, The mither beneath the mools heard that, when Miss Cathy who had listened to the hubbub from her room, put her head in, and whispered,一‘Are you alone, Nelly?,, wVes, Miss,” I replied. She entered and approached the hearth. I, supposing she was going to say something, looked up. The expression of her face seemed disturbed and anxious. Her lips were half asunder, as if she meant to speak, and she drew a breath; but it escaped in a sigh instead of a sentence. I resumed my song; not having forgotten her recent behaviour. “Where’s Heathcliff?” she said, interrupting me. ‘About his work in the stable,w was my answer. He did not contradict me; perhaps he had fallen into a doze. There followed another long pause, during which I perceived a drop or two trickle from Catherine’s cheek to the flags. Is she sorry for her shameful conduct?一I asked myself That will be a novelty: but she may come to the point—as she will—I sha’n’t help her! No, she felt small trouble regarding any subject, save her own concerns. “Oh, dear!” she cried at last, “I’m very unhappy!” ‘A pity” observed I. “Abu’re hard to please; so many friends and so few cares, and can’t make yourself content!” -73- Wuthering Heights “Nelly, will you keep a secret for me?” she pursued, kneeling down by me, and lifting her winsome eyes to my face with that sort of look which turns off bad temper, even when one has all the right in the world to indulge it. “Is it worth keeping?” I inquired, less sulkily uYes, and it worries me, and I must let it out! I want to know what I should do. To-day; Edgar Linton has asked me to marry him, and Pve given him an answer. No\^ before I tell you whether it was a consent or denial, you tell me which it ought to have been.” “Really Miss Catherine, how can I know?” I replied, “To be sure, considering the exhibition you performed in his presence this afternoon, I might say it would be wise to refuse him: since he asked you after that, he must either be hopelessly stupid or a venturesome fool.” “If you talk so, I won’t tell you any more,” she returned, peevishly rising to her feet. “I accepted him, Nelly Be quick, and say whether I was wrong!w “Ydu accepted him! Then what good is it discussing the matter? %u have pledged your word, and cannot retract.” “But say whether I should have done so~ o!” she exclaimed in an irritated tone; chafing her hands together, and frowning. “There are many things to be considered before that question can be answered properly,w I said, sententiously “First and foremost, do you love Mr. Edgar?” “Who can help it? Of course I do,” she answered. Then I put her through the following catechism: for a girl of twenty-two it was not injudicious. “Why do you love him, Miss Cathy?” “Nonsense, I do—that’s sufficient.,^ “By no means; you must say why?” “Wfell, because he is handsome, and pleasant to be with.” “Bad!” was my commentary 'And because he is young and cheerful.” -74- CHAPTER 9 "Bad, Still.,, ‘And because he loves me.” 4